HIV - LEARNING ISSUE: HIV-MH Epidemiology Almost 40 million...

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LEARNING ISSUE: HIV-MH Epidemiology Almost 40 million individuals are infected with HIV worldwide, and 90% of them are in developing countries. HIV has infected 4.4 million children and has resulted in the deaths of 3.2 million. Each day, 1800 children—the vast majority newborns—are infected with HIV. Approximately 7% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa is infected with HIV; these individuals represent 64% of the world's HIV-infected population. Furthermore, 76% of all women infected with HIV live in this region. HIV-1 is the most common cause of HIV infection in the Americas, in Europe, in Asia, and in Africa. HIV-1 subtypes differ by geographic region. HIV-1 subtype B is predominant in the United States, though non-B subtype HIV-1 infections are increasing. Pathophysiology CD4 receptors are located on CD4 + T lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages After HIV enters a host, trimeric gp120 glycoproteins that protrude from its lipoprotein bilayer envelope bind to CD4 cell-surface receptors and CCR5 or CXCR4 chemokine co- receptors After gp120 binds to the receptors, an associated gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein is inserted into the cell membrane and initiates cell-membrane fusion Upon entering the cell, the protease enzyme produces the reverse transcriptase and ribonuclease (RNAse) H enzymes responsible for synthesizing the single-stranded DNA
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HIV - LEARNING ISSUE: HIV-MH Epidemiology Almost 40 million...

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