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China 1-Bare-Bones

China 1-Bare-Bones - China 1 MONUMENTS OF MATERIAL CULTURE...

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China 1 MONUMENTS OF MATERIAL CULTURE: THE SHANG AND ZHOU THE BRONZE AGE OF CHINA 1600 1045 551 Shang Zhou Confucius Tan Dun (composer) I. Introduction to “The Middle Kingdom” ( Ethnocentrism)( shang, zhou, …) A. Geography B. Ethnic makeup 1. Approximately 94% are Han Chinese; 6% are minorities, including Mongols, Tibetans, Uighurs, Manchus 2. Within the Han, there are different groupings according to dialect C. Chronology of Dynasties ( Found in Reader—please consult often!!)(no capital question) 1. Shang 1600-1045 BC: Capital at Anyang 2. Zhou 1045-221 BC: Capital at modern site of Xian 3. Qin 221-207 BC: Capital at Xianyang near Xi’an (chang an) 4. Han 206 BC-220 AD: Capital moves from Xian to Loyang 5. Six Dynasties 220-589: southern dynasty (Fa Xian’s pilgrimage to India) 6. Northern Wei 386-534: Capital moves from Datong to Loyang (cave temples and pagodas) 7. Sui 581-618: Capital moves from Luoyang to Changan (Xian) 8. Tang 618-906: Capital at Changan (Xian)—Emperor Taizong 9. Five Dynasties 907-960: northern Chinese dynasty 10. Song 960-1279: Capital at Kaifeng until 1127 11. Yuan 1260-1368 12. Ming 1368-1644: Capital moves from Nanjing to Beijing 13. Qing 1644-1911: Capital at Beijing 14. Republic of China 1912 Capital at Nanjing/Taipei 15. People’s Republic of China 1949-Capital at Beijing D. Language 1. Linguist Jerry Norman says that “few language names are as all- encompassing as that of Chinese” 2. Historical variety of written forms a.Archaic inscriptions are on oracle bones b.Poetic language of the Tang c.Vernacular novels of the Ming-Qing d.Modern language in standard and dialectical form 3. Despite historical varieties of script and varieties in spoken language— the SCRIPT is what unites China 4. Variety in modern spoken dialects—mutually unintelligible a. 7 major dialect groups—scores of subdialects 5. Chinese “languages”—7 languages divided into 3 major groupings: North, Central, South a. Northern: Mandarin b.Central: Xiāng, Wú, Gàn 1
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c. Southern: Kèjiā Yuè, M n ǐ 6. Min is the most different. 7. Comparison with European Romance Languages a.French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian---Romanian being most different 8. Min is to the rest of Chinese dialects as Romanian is to the other romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese) 9. WHY?? Fujian is separated from rest of China by mountains D. What unifies this culture?? 1. Why have such disparate historical written forms and disparate geographical variants all been subsumed under one name? 2. Answer—in the “profound unity of Chinese culture that has been transmitted in an unbroken line beginning from the 3 rd millennium BC and continuing down to the present day.” 3. This unity was facilitated by a “script that for all practical purposes was independent of any particular phonetic manifestation of their language 4. This script allowed the Chinese to look upon the Chinese language as more uniform than it actually was.” 5.
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