China 2-Bare-Bones

China 2-Bare-Bones - China 2 BELIEF SYSTEMS: CONFUCIANISM...

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China 2 BELIEF SYSTEMS: CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM 1600 1045 551 221 206BC -220 AD Shang Zhou Qin Han I. Introduction A. The two most important philosophies to emerge at end of Zhou dynasty (Warring States): one of control and one of escape B. The stream of philosophical thought characterized by CONTROL 1. Represented by Confucius, Xunzi, Mencius 2. Will refer to this stream as the Confucian stream C. Another stream characterized by ESCAPE 1. Represented by Laozi and Zhuangzi 2. Will refer to this stream as the Daoist stream D. Both of these philosophical streams reflected the aristocratic elite, yet these streams also eventually infiltrated the worlds of the laobaixing as well II. The Confucian Stream: CONTROL A. Confucius (551-479 BC) lived during a period of unrest B. Contemporary of Siddartha Gautama (Buddha) and Laozi. C. His ideas about government had to do with bringing peace, unity, and order in a time of warfare. D. The ideas of ancestor worship and the use of ritual bell music we spoke about last time was part of Confucius’ life experience. E. Confucius reflected many aspects of current thinking—did not create new ideas —elaborated on existing ideas 1. Worship of ancestors 2. Achieve earthly and cosmic harmony 3. Regulate the self and society through ritual and the arts!!! F. By the time of Confucius, there were 6 arts: 1. Ritual 2. Music 3. Archery 4. Riding 5. Writing 6. Computation (DeWoskin 158) G. Eventually there were several important works attributed to him directly and indirectly—( See Reader about Confucian Canon ). H. We will read a few excerpts from one of the Confucian Canon, The Analects of Confucius —his important teachings, compiled by his students. 1. Importance of virtue 2. The notion of the “superior man” 3. Importance of music—regulator of human behavior 4. The concept of filial piety and deference to elders: elaborate 5. The primacy of relationships—how they are established: elaborate 1. Ruler-subject 2. Father-son 3. Husband-wife 4. Elder brother-younger brother 1
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5. Friend-friend III. Read from Handout: The Analects of Confucius IV. STORY: Example of a modern popular interpretation of a Confucian idea A. Concept of Zhong Yong (Doctrine of the Mean—on of the classics): Grasshopper and Cricket V. Music and Ritual A. What we have read and spoken about is simply a sampling of his ideas B. As humanities students, one of the most interesting aspects of his thinking was that he had a vision of music as second only to ritual in the 6 arts—at the core of becoming a superior man! C. He believed that music was both a reflection of good government and a regulator of it. Because of this, a ruler had to 1. Find the correct pitches 2. Needed to immortalize pitches in the bells—made of the most durable and lasting material—bronze 3. So, you see, these thoughts were not new—he elaborated upon existing musical practice of using ritual orchestras D. Confucius believed that ritual (li) was necessary to direct man’s outward actions,
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China 2-Bare-Bones - China 2 BELIEF SYSTEMS: CONFUCIANISM...

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