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China 8-Bare-Bones

China 8-Bare-Bones - China 8 THE ARTS AND THE REVOLUTION...

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China 8 THE ARTS AND THE REVOLUTION: TIANANMEN 1989 AND BEYOND 960-1279 1368-1644 1912 1949 1966-1976 1989 2008 1260 1368 1644-1911 Song Yuan Ming Qing ROC PRC CR Tiananmen Olympics I. Historical Examples of Folk Song Collecting A. Collecting for a political purpose: oldest collection 1. Shi Jing (Book of Odes or Book of Songs) was complied some time after 600 BC—revered by Confucius 2. Reflections of peoples’s thoughts—check back of handout 3. Folk song lyrics reflected opinions of people—yet also a tool for molding and correcting thoughts of people… II. Folk Song Collecting in the 20 th Century A. Other collections of folk song throughout history—jump to modern period B. The May Fourth Period and the Legacy of the Students and Intellectuals 1. Demonstration on May 4, 1919 against the Chinese government’s decision to comply with the Versailles Treaty by surrendering Shandong province to Japan 2. Some championed Chinese folk culture as an alternative to “classical” literature 3. Folk songs became a source of inspiration for poets 4. Vernacular language was used in modern literature 5. Remember a similar movement in India?? C. Two responses to using folk songs in modernizing China 1. KMT (Guomindang) viewed folk song collecting with suspicion— objected to earthy lyrics 2. Communists took a different perspective—folk song as a political tool. a. Under Mao’s guidance, the incentive of ‘going to the people’ gradually assumed rather awesome proportions. b. 1942—delivered “Talks at the Yenan Forum” III. Talks at the Yenan Forum on Art and Literature A. In “Talks” Mao stated some fundamental principles directed to the creation of all art, formulating his Party’s position B. Relied on Soviet models and Marxist theory C. Mao had a special vision for the arts D. Ironically, he indirectly tapped into traditional Confucian views about the role of music as a educational tool E. Stated 5 principles for all the arts 1. Sociology of Art a. Audience is composed of workers, peasants, soldiers and cadres (Mao 1956: 7) b. Musicians must adopt perspective of masses in order to create for them—a point that differed with the Confucian view c. Confucius felt that wise rulers controlled music for people d. In actuality, it ended up being the same for Maoists—even if created for the masses, it was still created by those in power 2. Purpose of Art a. Encourage people by teaching about the revolution 1
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3. Relationship between Art and Politics a. Art is subsidiary to politics, yet it has the capacity to magnify or enhance a political standpoint b. Confucius said that music has the capacity to order human emotions and actions 4. Popularization and Elevation a. Popularization—transmit arts to all people b. Elevation—raise level of appreciation 5. Socialist Realism a. Art is not naked reality but socialist reality “on a higher level and of greater power and better focused, more typical, nearer the ideal, and therefore more universal than actual everyday life.” b. Like the traditional concept: Art is NOT naked reality F.
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