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CHAPTER 10 - CHAPTER 10 A Nutrition and Foraging...

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CHAPTER 10: Nutrition and Foraging A) Comparative digestive systems: Digestive System of Fowls Figure 10.1 (Bolen & Robinson 2003) Crop – Collection chamber of ingested food. No digestion occurs here. Glandular Stomach or Proventriculus – True stomach that secrets enzymes to initiate digestion. Gizzard or Ventriculus – Muscular stomach capable of strong contractions. Storage of ingested grit that aids in the physical break-down of food.
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Ceca (two) – Function depends on the dietary habit of the bird. Digestive System of Monogastric mammal Figure 10.2 (Bolen & Robinson 2003) Major Components and function of the Monogastric mammal digestive system - omnivores and some herbivores (Figure 10.2): Stomach (single organ) – Area of digestion of ingested food Small Intestine – Absorption of water and digested protein Cecum (enlarged in herbivores) – Microbial digestion and bacterial decomposition of fibrous food. Cecal droppings are darker and often re-ingested. Large Intestine – Aids in further digestion and absorption.
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Digestive System of Ruminants Figure 10.3 (Bolen & Robinson 2003) Major Components and function of the Ruminant digestive system (Figure 10.3): Rumen and Reticulum – Often discussed together since each compartment is separated by a low partition and contents mix freely. Eighty percent of the capacity of the stomach is related to the reticulo-rumen. The rumen is the main fermentation vat where billions of microorganisms break down the relative indigestible food components. Omasum – Acts as the filter pump to sort liquid and fine food particles. Water, minerals and nitrogen are absorbed here.
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Abomasum – This is the true stomach and the only location in the digestive system that produces gastric juices. B) Nutrition and Foraging: Represent a complex of choices that dictate survival. Foods contain 3 basic and essential nutritive categories: Water, Inorganic minerals, and Organic Compounds. 1) Water : Essential for temperature control, transportation of metabolic products, excretion, lubrication as well as sound and light transport. a) Sources of water for wildlife
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b) Seasonal distribution relates to requirements c) Water management: Catchments and guzzlers (rain traps) Guzzlers: Surface area (ft²) of apron / 12 X 7.4 = Gallons per inch of rainfall The site is located to take advantage of slope for drainage. Can a slope be created? The site may be fenced to keep livestock and some wildlife (esp. elk) from destroying the apron.
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