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CHAPTER 12 - CHAPTER 12 A Wildlife Diseases Health defined...

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CHAPTER 12: Wildlife Diseases A) Health defined: Health is a state of minimum impairment, which to achieve requires a maximum of competence (physical, physiological, intellectual, social), as well as the necessary resources, opportunities and motivation (V. Geist, 1989). Good Health: The slowest possible rate of death. B) Disease defined: A lack of health. A disturbance to the normal function or structure of an animal (Bolen and Robinson, 1999). 1) Causative agents of disease: usually infectious, parasitic, toxic, physiological, nutritional, congenital, and degenerative factors. C) Terminology: 1) Etiology: the science dealing with causes of disease (etiological agent refers to the cause(s) of a disease.) 2) Pathogens: etiological agents that include bacteria, viruses, rickettsias, parasites, fungi and others 3) Epizootic: The acute outbreak or expression of disease, e.g. large numbers of animals infected (generally same species). 4) Enzootic: The low but chronic level of a disease occurrence in a single population. 5) Zoonosis: Refers to diseases that may be shared by man and animals, huge number, -- e.g. rabies, tularemia, influenza, undulant fever (brucellosis), plague (bubonic/pneumonic), hantavirus (HPS), mad cow disease and etc.
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D) Epizootiology: (epidemiology in man) Refers to the study of the interactions and relationships between the host, etiological agent and their environment. Known as the ecological study of medicine and includes infectious and non-infectious diseases. Epizootiology Effect = (H f + P f + E f + I f + V f + D f + …) H – Host P – Pathogen E – Environment I – Interaction V – Vector D – Dispersal E) Why study wildlife diseases: At least four reasons require this attention. 1) Potential and real zoonoses that affect wildlife and man must be investigated, e.g. foot-and-mouth disease, brucellosis and etc. Hantavirus (ribavirin): One newly identified strain also known as Muerto Canyon Disease, Four Corners Disease, Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) (ARDS -- Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome). 2) Population density of wildlife species: Restricted habitats, seasonal concentrations, cyclic population highs and other related factors may favor infectious transfer of disease organisms.
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