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CHAPTER 20: WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY A) Wildlife Management Wildlife management is a process for managing certain wildlife populations at a level to optimize their numbers in relation to economic, social and ecological factors. To manage a certain type of wildlife, compensatory mortality is focused on the removal of the excess by humans (sport hunting, subsistence hunting, etc.). Aldo Leopold, one of the pioneers of wildlife management, defined it as "the art of making land produce sustained annual crops of wildlife." The process involves managing human impacts on land, with the desired result being sustainable, balanced populations of various species. Wildlife management ultimately depends on habitat management. If a habitat is to be maintained it may include natural disturbances that are normally present, such as wildfire and grazing by domestic and wild animals. Each successional stage (moving from a simpler level of organization to a more complex community) present in the wild habitat must be maintained. There are two general types of wildlife management: 1) Manipulative management acts on a population, either changing its numbers by direct means or influencing numbers by the indirect means of altering food supply, habitat, density of predators, or prevalence of disease. This is appropriate when a population is to be harvested, or when it slides to an unacceptably low density or increases to an unacceptably high level. 2) Custodial management is preventive or protective. The aim is to minimize external influences on the population and its habitat. It is appropriate in a national park where one of the stated goals is to protect ecological processes. It is also appropriate for conservation of a threatened species where the threat is of external origin rather than being intrinsic to the system.
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The Wildlife Society, founded in 1937, remains the premier organization that represents the ethics and techniques of wildlife management. It is an international, non-profit scientific and educational organization serving and representing wildlife professionals in all areas of wildlife
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2012 for the course BIO 260 taught by Professor Dannyraymer during the Fall '11 term at BYU.

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