456ConceptConquest-Colonies - CONQUEST COLONIZATION&...

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Unformatted text preview: CONQUEST, COLONIZATION & COLONIALISM COLONIALISM CE 636 (Yarmouck) – 1810 (Independence) After Defeating Byzantine Christians Muslim Militants Move on Western Europe (Pre-conquest) Battle of Guadalete Battle (711) (711) Invading force of Muslim Arabs and Berbers under Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad Destruction of Christian army under King Roderic Opens way for Islamic conquest of Spain Maximum Extent of Muslim Conquest Re-conquest Gains Momentum Moslem Spain: Center of High Culture Moslem Spain: Enclave in AlMoslem Andalus Andalus Expulsion of Moors in 1492 leads to interest in the Atlantic Region to Spain Establishes its Presence in the Caribbean Basin 1492 – 1515 Hispanola: first center of imperial power Cuba supplants Hispanola as the center of Spanish power in the Caribbean (1515) Conquest of Mexico Conquest Mexico Falls to Spain 1519 ◦ Moctezuma’s apprehension ◦ Noche Triste in Tenochtitlan Smallpox and the end of the Aztec empire Mexico City becomes the capital of New Caribbean Basin Caribbean Conquest of Guatemala Conquest Maya civilization in decline ◦ Known as “Greeks” of New World ◦ City states at war with each other Guatemala Falls to Pedro Alvaraco (1523) Cultural genocide of the Mayas Conquest of Spanish South America Conquest Hernando Pizarro sets sale for the South (1530) The Nature/Extent of the Inca Empire Capture of Atahualpa at Cajamarca ◦ Ransom and execution ◦ Cuzco captured (1533) Conquest Spills Over: North & South Conquest Spanish occupy Colombian highlands and establish Bogotá Venezuela a frontier outpost Argentina / Viceroyalty de La Plata ◦ Settled from Peru ◦ Of secondary importance Spanish Empire at its Height Spanish 16th Century The Pillars of Hercules with the motto “Plus Ultra” as symbol symbol of the Discovery & Conquest of Brazil 1500 accidental discovery (Pedro Cabral) Indifference gives way to interest ◦ Profits in dyewood ◦ French designs ◦ Fear of Spanish designs ◦ Stress of maintaining Asian colonies Sailing ships and the discovery of Brazil Occupation and Conquest of Brazil Portuguese presence in enclaves within captaincies ◦ Individual captaincies stretched inland from an Atlantic seaboard ◦ Captaincy of Pernambuco in the north (source of dyewood) ◦ Captaincy of Sao Vicente in the south (aim at containing Spain) Battle of Ksar El Kebir 1578 Battle Result Decisive Moroccan victory 1580 Portuguese succession crisis ◦ Philip II of Spain ascends to throne of Portugal Dynastic union between Portugal and Spain Minimal concern over boundaries between Brazil and Spanish colonies Spanish Colonialism: Conflicting Imperial ideologies Imperial Aristotilian notion of Juan Gines de Sepulveda Thomistic view of Bartolome de las Casas Franciscan mysticism of Friar Geronimo de Mendieta Spanish Empire in the Americas Political ◦ Territorial organization ◦ Council of the Indies ◦ Royal government ◦ Cabildo Spanish Empire in the Americas: Social Structure I Social Classes & Casts ◦ Peninsulares ◦ Criollos ◦ Mestizos ◦ Mulattos ◦ Indians ◦ Blacks ◦ Zambos Spanish Empire in the Americas: Social Structure II Church ◦ Conversion ◦ Ideology ◦ Tied with royal authorities Education ◦ Law ◦ Medicine ◦ Theology ◦ Engineering Spanish Empire in the Americas: Political Economy Agriculture and the repartimientos Royal Exchequer Spanish commercial system ◦ Mercantilism ◦ Embedded privileges ◦ Industry prohibited (in general) Portuguese Establish a Presence the New World New Control by means of system of captaincies (type of concession) ◦ Donatarios ◦ Similar to English colonies in North America Difficulties in holding territory against European competitors Portuguese Consolidate their Brazilian Empire Brazilian Centralization in 1549 ◦ Appointment of Capitão Mor (Captain general) ◦ Bahia is capital of all Brazil Portuguese Empire in Brazil: Portuguese Foreign Competitors Spanish Interlude (1580-1640) Half-hearted efforts by British and French Portuguese Empire in Brazil: Portuguese The Dutch Challenge Dutch West India Company attempts to repeat its victory in the East Indies ◦ Capture of Bahia (1624) and Recife (1630) ◦ Eventually held 1,200 miles of coast Expulsion of the Dutch ◦ Turned on military developments in Europe ◦ Dutch withdrew from Recife in 1654 Portuguese Empire in Brazil Class structure mimics that of the Spanish empire – but: fewer Amerindians and more Africans Church is pivotal Europeanizing agency Education ◦ Pivotal role of church ◦ Most of elite went to Coimbra (Portugal) for university education ...
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