Australasia - Banks Mariano Guaves Ramos Velasquez YAP YAP...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Banks Mariano Guaves Ramos Velasquez YAP YAP Dance – legends are passed Dance down, history is recorded and entertainment is created. Famous for its clear waters where there Famous is rich marine life. is World’s foremost destination World’s for seeing Manta Rays up close and personal. and Top of the list of the finest Top diving attractions in the world. diving CHUUK CHUUK Has a beautiful lagoon which is a Mecca Has for wreck divers. for Truk Lagoon – major shipwreck site Truk from WWII and world’s best shipwreck diving destination diving POHNPEI POHNPEI Largest and tallest island in Largest Micronesia Micronesia Known for its waterfalls Kepirohi Waterfall Nan Madol Ruins (Venice of the Pacific) KOSRAE KOSRAE Bottleneck dolphins are apt residences Bottleneck Known for its virgin reefs and pristine of the coast and whales sometimes can be Known waters with hard corals waters spotted spotted New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two New main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island), and numerous smaller islands main Capital – Wellington Coordinates - 41° 17’ S, 174° 24’ E Largest City – Auckland (which used to be their capital) Area - Total 268,680 km2 (75th) 103,738 sq mi - Water (%) 2.1 Population - September 2008 estimate 4,280,000 (122nd (2008)) - 2006 census 4,027,947 - Density 15/km2 (204th) 39/sq mi 5 6 New Zealand comprises two main islands, the North and South Islands, Te Ika New Zealand comprises two main islands, the North and South Islands, Te Ika a Maui and Te Wai Pounamu respectively in Māori, and a number of smaller islands, located near the centre of the water hemisphere. Cook Strait, 20 kilometres wide at its narrowest point, separates the North and South Islands. The total land area, 268,680 square kilometres (103,738 sq mi), is a little less than that of Italy and Japan, and a little more than the United Kingdom. The country extends more than 1600&nsbp;km (1000 mi) along its main, north-north-east axis, with approximately 15,134 km (9,404 mi) of coastline. The most significant of the smaller inhabited islands include Stewart Island/Rakiura; Waiheke Island, in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf; Great Barrier Island, east of the Hauraki Gulf; and the Chatham Islands, named Rēkohu byMoriori. The country has extensive marine resources, with the seventh-largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering over four million square kilometres (1.5 million square miles), more than 15 times its land area. The South Island is the largest land mass of New Zealand, and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps, the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook at 3754 metres (12,320 ft). There are 18 peaks over 3000 metres (9843 ft) in the South Island. The North Island is less mountainous but is marked by volcanism. The highest North Island mountain, Mount Ruapehu (2797 m, 9177 ft), is an active cone volcano. The dramatic and varied landscape of New Zealand has made it a popular location for the production of television programmes and films, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy and the The Last Samurai. New Zealand’s Government New Head of State – Elizabeth II, Queen of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In case of absence, a non-partisan 1.Governor-General 2.No real political influence 3.Must be apolitical 4.Symbolic-position 5.Binds the people Head of Government – Prime Minister 1.Comes from the democraticallyelected Parliament 2.Chief Executive Officer of the NZ Gov’t 3.Oversees the Parliament as they perform the law-making process New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. Although it has no codified constitution, the Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealand's constitutional structure. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state and is titled Queen of New Zealand under theRoyal Titles Act 1974. She is represented by the Governor-General, whom she appoints on the exclusive advice of the Prime Minister. The current Governor-General is Anand Satyanand. The Governor-General exercises the Crown's prerogative powers, such as the power to appoint and dismiss ministers and to dissolve Parliament, and in rare situations, the reserve powers. The GovernorGeneral also chairs the Executive Council, which is a formal committee consisting of all ministers of the Crown. Members of the Executive Council are required to be Members of Parliament, and most are also in Cabinet. Cabinet is the most senior policy-making body and is led by the Prime Minister, who is also, by convention, the Parliamentary leader of the governing party or coalition The New Zealand Parliament has only one chamber, The New Zealand Parliament has only one chamber, the House of Representatives, which usually seats 120 Members of Parliament. Parliamentary general elections are held every three years under a form of proportional representation called Mixed Member Proportional. The 2008 General Election created an 'overhang' of two extra seats, occupied by the Māori Party, due to that party winning more seats in electorates than the number of seats its proportion of the party vote would have given it. The highest court in New Zealand is the Supreme The highest court in New Zealand is the Supreme Court of New Zealand, established in 2004 following the passage of the Supreme Court Act 2003. The act abolished the option to appeal to the Privy Council in London. The current Chief Justice is Dame Sian Elias. New Zealand's judiciary also includes the Court of Appeal; the High Court, which deals with serious criminal offences and civil matters at the trial level and with appeals from lower courts and tribunals; and subordinate courts. New Zealand is the only country in the world in New Zealand is the only country in the world in which all the highest offices in the land have been occupied simultaneously by women: Queen Elizabeth II,Governor-General Dame Silvia Cartwright, Prime Minister Helen Clark, Speaker of the House of Representatives Margaret Wilson and Chief Justice DameSian Elias were all in office between March 2005 and August 2006. For its first hundred years, New Zealand followed the United Kingdom's For its first hundred years, New Zealand followed the United Kingdom's lead on foreign policy. In declaring war on Germany on 3 September 1939, Prime Minister Michael Savage proclaimed, "Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand". After the war the United States exerted an increased influence on culture and the New Zealand people gained a clearer sense of national identity. New Zealand joined Australia and the United States in the ANZUSsecurity treaty in 1951, and later fought alongside the United States in both the Korean and the Vietnam Wars. In contrast, the United Kingdom became increasingly focused on its European interests following the Suez Crisis, and New Zealand was forced to develop new markets after the UK joined theEEC in 1973. New Zealand maintains a strong profile on environmental protection, human rights and free trade, particularly in agriculture. New Zealand is a member of APEC, East Asia Summit, Commonwealth of Nations, OECD and the United Nations. New Zealand is party to a number offree trade agreements, of which the most important are the China-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement and Closer Economic Relations with Australia. Polynesia Subregion of Oceania comprising a large grouping over 1,000 islands scattered Subregion over the central and southern Pacific Ocean over Islands within the Polynesian Triangle Geographically, it is a triangle with its corners at Hawaii, New Zealand, and Geographically, Easter Island Easter The other main islands are: Samoa, Tonga, and various islands that form the The Cook Islands and French Polynesia. Cook It is an anthropological term referring to one of the three parts of Oceania. Subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people Three theories regarding the spread of humans across the Pacific to Polynesia Express Train Model Entangled Bank Model Slow Boat Model South china seaWestern Micronesia and on into Melanesia Two distinct Polynesian groups: East Polynesia, West Polynesia East Polynesia – Cook Islands, Tahiti, Tuamotus, Marquesas, Hawaii, Rapa Nui West Polynesia – Tonga, Niue, Samoa Politics – leaders were chosen in Polynesia based on their hereditary bloodline Samoa – system of government that combines elements of heredity and real-world skills to choose country leaders. System is called MATAI Source of Income – primary source, fishing Settlements by Polynesians were of two categories – HAMLET and VILLAGE Hamlet – in volcanic islands Villages – on the coasts of small islands Art – weaving, carving, dwellings, body decorating, making jewelleries Relgion – Christianity Foreign aid and remittances Tourism income TV internet top-level domain name Stamp sales One of the three main divisions of Oceania, in the SW Pacific Ocean, NE of Australia and S of the equator. Melanesia includes: Solomon Islands Vanuatu New Caledonia Tuvalu the Bismarck Archipelago the Admiralty Islands Fiji New Guinea is sometimes included in Melanesia. The Melanesians are largely of Australoid stock; they speak Malayo-Polynesian languages. Melanesia's 2,000 islands and total land area are about 386,000 square miles (one million square kilometers). Officially Republic of the Fiji Islands Made up of a Melanesian island group (2005 est. pop. 893,000), c.7,000 sq mi (18,130 sq km), South Pacific Suva is the capital Fiji comprises c.320 islands, of which some 105 are inhabited Viti Levu, the largest, constitutes half the land area and is the seat of Suva The other important islands are Vanua Levu (the second largest), Taveuni, Kadavu, Koro, Gau, and Ovalau In the group's center is the Koro Sea The larger islands are volcanic and mountainous; the highest peak, Mt. Victoria, or Tomaniivi (4,341 ft/1,323 m) is on Viti Levu. Viti Levu also has the longest river, the Rewa Fiji's climate is warm and humid There are dense tropical forests on the windward sides of the islands and grassy plains and clumps of casuarina and pandanus on the leeward sides; mangrove forests are abundant, and hot springs are common in the mountain regions The chief towns are generally seaports: Suva and Lautoka on Viti Levu; and Levuka, on a small island E of Viti Levu Group of 40 volcanic islands, c.800 sq mi (2,070 sq km), SW Pacific, in the Bismarck Archipelago and part of Papua New Guinea Lorengau, the chief port and administrative center of the group, is on Manus, the largest island. Copra, pearls, and marine shells are the principal products. Discovered by the Dutch navigator Willem Schouten in 1616, the group became part of German New Guinea in 1884 and an Australian League of Nations mandate in 1920. volcanic island group, 19,200 sq mi (49,730 sq km), SW Pacific, a part of Papua New Guinea The group includes New Britain (the largest island), New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, the Mussau Islands, New Hanover, the Vitu Islands, and the Duke of York Islands The islands are generally mountainous and have several active volcanoes The chief agricultural products are copra, cacao, coffee, tea, and rubber. Some copper and gold are mined Discovered in 1616 by the Dutch explorer Willem Schouten, the group became a German protectorate in 188 Seized by Australian forces in World War I, the islands were mandated to Australia by the League of Nations in 1920 The archipelago was included in Papua New Guinea when it became independent in 1973 independent Commonwealth nation (1995 est. pop. 10,000), 10 sq mi (26 sq km), composed of nine low coral atolls, formerly known as the Ellice (or Lagoon) Islands, scattered over the W Pacific Ocean The capital and largest city is Fongafale, on Funafuti. Subsistence farming and fishing are the mainstays of the economy, with copra the chief cash crop for export The smallness and remoteness of the islands hinder the development of a tourist industry. The sale of postage stamps and coins accounts for the largest portion of the country's income. Other substantial income is received through a trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom The population is primarily Polynesian and about 98% Protestant; most are members of the Church of Tuvalu, a Congregationalist denomination The government consists of a governor-general representing the British crown, a prime minister and cabinet, and a unicameral elected parliament. (2005 est. pop. 216,000), land area 7,241 sq mi (18,760 sq km), South Pacific, c.700 mi (1,130 km) E of Australia. It comprises the island of New Caledonia, the Isle of Pines, the Loyalty Islands, Walpole Island, and the Huon, Chesterfield, and Belep groups . The capital is Nouméa on New Caledonia island. New Caledonia island, the largest island of the territory (6,223 sq mi/16,118 sq km), is mountainous and temperate in climate The island of New Caledonia is rich in mineral resources, especially nickel, chrome, iron, manganese, cobalt, gold, and silver. It is densely forested in some places, but almost all the kauri pine that was once an important export has been cut down. The principal industries are the mining and refining of nickel, iron mining, the production of coffee and copra, and shrimp farming The population is about 45% Melanesian (Kanak) and 35% European (mostly French) with Polynesians in the outlying islands. French and several Melanesian and Polynesian dialects are spoken. About 60% of the population is Roman Catholic and 30% is Protestant The government consists of a high commissioner appointed by France, an elected territorial congress, and a council. The territory is divided into three provinces, each with its own assembly. formerly New Hebrides (hĕb´rĭdēz) , officially Republic of Vanuatu, independent republic (2005 est. pop. 206,000), c.5,700 sq mi (14,760 sq km), South Pacific, E of Australia. Vanuatu is a 450-mi (724-km) chain of 80 islands, of which the most important are Espíritu Santo (the largest), Efate, Malakula, Malo, Pentecost, and Tanna. The capital, Vila, is on Efate. Vanuatu's islands are forested and mountainous, formed by volcanic eruptions (and still subject to them). The highest peak (c.6,195 ft/1,890 m) is on Espiritu Santo. The population is predominantly Melanesians, with some Polynesians; there are also Chinese settlers and Vietnamese laborers Bislama, English and French are official languages, but a local pidgin called Bislama or Bichelama is also widely spoken The majority of the population is Christian The chief industries are copra production, tuna fishing, manganese mining, and cattle raising Additional revenues derive from a growing tourist industry and the development of Vila as a corporate tax shelter A member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Vanuatu has a president, a prime minister and council, and a unicameral parliament. Administratively, Vanautu is divided into 11 island councils. independent Commonwealth nation (2005 est. pop. 538,000), c.15,500 sq mi (40,150 sq km), SW Pacific, E of New Guinea The islands that constitute the nation of the Solomon Islands–Guadalcanal, Malaita, New Georgia, the Santa Cruz Islands, Choiseul, Ysabel (Santa Isabel), San Cristobal (Makira), the Shortland Islands, and countless smaller islands–are only part of the 900-mi (1,448-km) Solomon Islands chain, which also includes Bougainville and Buka, which are politically part of Papua New Guinea. Administratively, the country is divided into nine provinces and the capital territory, which is Honiara, on Guadalcanal. The Solomons are mountainous and heavily wooded The inhabitants are largely Melanesians, although some Polynesians live in the outlying atolls. The inhabitants are largely Melanesians, although some Polynesians live in the outlying atolls. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world. Australia is an island, surrounded by water. It is located on the smallest continent in the world. Population: 17.5 million Geographic size: 2.97 million square miles Capital: Canberra Major cities and population: Brisbane, Sydney, Perth, Melbourne, and Adelaide. Australia has a very dramatic landscape. Australia is famous for its "outback," the remote lands of the interior. The desert outback covers most of the interior. It is too hot, dry and barren to support many people. Eastern Australia has large areas of grasslands, used primarily for sheep and cattle ranches. Australia also has some mountainous areas and plateaus scattered throughout the country. The Blue Mountains, on the southeastern end of Australia, get their name from the blue haze caused by oil droplets given off from the eucalyptus trees. As an island, Australia also has many beautiful coastal beaches. Over 70% of Australians now live in cities or towns. Most of this population lives in the eastern and southern coasts, and around Perth in the west. Australia is home to many animals not found anywhere else in the world. These include the kangaroos, and the koala. Off the northeast coast of Australia is the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is over 1,200 miles of coral. It has developed over the last million years, and is now the largest living structure in the world. It ishome to many sharks and thousands of different types of tropical fish. Mining Mining includes bauxite, coal, copper, gold and iron ore. Most of the land is too dry for planting crops, although some areas do grow sugarcane, grapes and wheat. The grape vineyards help to support a growing wine industry. Farming Australia is probably best known for its sheep farming. Large numbers of sheep are raised for their wool and meat. There is also some cattle ranching to provide meat. The Native Australians, or Aborigines, have The Native Australians, or Aborigines, have lived in Australia for at least 40,000 years. In 1788, the British founded a prison colony on the east coast of Australia, in New South Wales. As more Europeans moved to Australia, the Aborigines were driven from their land. Australia is still part of the British commonwealth. Australia is still heavily influenced by its British Australia is still heavily influenced by its British and European origins. The Australian government is now making major efforts to preserve Australia's culture, including that of the Aboringines. Much of Australia has a continental climate. The Much of Australia has a continental climate. The temperatures get hot during the day, then drop considerably at night. Australia is also very arid, getting very little rain. Have a Nice Day! ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online