ch03 - AMERICA IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE The British Colonial...

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Unformatted text preview: AMERICA IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE The British Colonial System British colonies were founded independently by people with differing backgrounds and motivations each British colony had its own form of government, and British government did not regard colonies as a unit English political and legal institutions Crown left colonists to make own laws pertaining to local matters Kings Privy Council responsible for formulating colonial policy Parliamentary legislation applied to the colonies occasionally, British authorities attempted to create a more cohesive and efficient colonial system late 17th century, British policy was to transform proprietary and corporate colonies into royal colonies Board of Trade took over management of colonial affairs in 1696 failure to establish a centralized colonial government contributed to the development of independent governments and eventually to the United States federal system Mercantilism mercantilism described to a set of policies designed to make a country self-sufficient while selling more goods abroad than it imported if colonies lacked gold and silver, they The Navigation Acts commerce was essential to mercantilism in the 1650s, Parliament responded to Dutch preeminence in shipping with Navigation Acts reserved the entire trade of colonies to English ships and required that captain and 3/4 of crew be English acts also limited export of certain enumerated items acts were designed to stimulate British industry and trade and to The Effects of Mercantilism Mercantilist policy benefited both England and the colonies Englands interests prevailed when conflicts arose the inefficiency of English administration lessened the impact of mercantilist regulations when regulations became burdensome, the colonists simply ignored them; and England was inclined to look the other way The Great Awakening people in colonies began to recognize common interests and a common character by about 1750, the word American had entered the language one common experience was the Great Awakening, a wave of religious enthusiasm two ministers, Theodore Frelinghuysen (a Calvinist) and William Tennent (a Presbyterian), arrived in the 1720s they sought to instill evangelical zeal colonial tours of George Whitefield, a powerful orator, sparked much religious enthusiasm Whitefield did not deny the doctrine of predestination preached of a God receptive to good intentions many denominations split between the Old Lights or Old Sides, who supported more traditional approaches, and the New Lights or New Sides, who embraced revivalism The Rise and Fall of Jonathan Edwards Jonathan Edwards was the most famous native-born revivalist of the Great Awakening took over his grandfathers church in Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1727 Edwardss grandfather, Solomon Stoddard, practiced a policy of open enrollment Edwards set out to ignite a spiritual revival...
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ch03 - AMERICA IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE The British Colonial...

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