Chapter2 - TheEvolutionofWorldPolitics Chapter2...

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The Evolution of World Politics Chapter 2 PS 130 World Politics Michael R. Baysdell
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2 The Evolving World System:   Early Development   Important concepts come from ancient Greece and Rome— territorial (city-)state/sovereignty/nationalism/democracy Two types of Democracy—representative and direct These government also create concept of citizenship—Paul the  Apostle example Only male nonslave citizens were allowed to vote Fall of Rome and the emergence of universalistic authority-- both religious and secular authority  Roman Catholic Church asserts itself (Holy Roman Empire,  Kings crowned by Pope to display dominance) Secular authority fills the power vacuum: (Empires: Russian,  Austro-Hungarian, British, French, etc) Feudal system--local authority in the Middle Ages
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The Feudal System in Europe Organized around principalities, dukedoms, baronies, other  fiefdoms Nobles ruled these organizations and exercised almost  complete authority. In theory the nobles were subservient to a King, but at times the  King was technically weaker than the noble! Declined because of military technology and economic  expansion (except Russia, serfs until 1863)
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4 Decline of Universalistic Authority:  Causes Renaissance between 1350-1650 Belief in “reason” trumped God Protestant Reformation splits Catholic Church; Luther’s 95  theses (1517)--25% of Western Europeans become Protestant Henry VIII rejects Papal authority after denied divorce, creates  Church of England (Episcopalian Church) The Treaty of Westphalia (1648): Holy Roman Empire splintered into two rival Catholic  monarchies (Spain, Austria-Hungary)
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The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Ended 30 Years War, 1618 to 1648 Decentralization of the Holy Roman  Empire—over 300 German princes  became sovereign Emphasis on  state sovereignty       within anarchical political system Collapse of multinational empires Habsburg supremacy curtailed  Rise of the Bourbon Dynasty in France Rise of the Swedish Empire Rise of the Dutch Republic Decline of papal authority
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6 The 18th and 19th Centuries: Emerging Themes Surrounding the Sovereign State  Popular sovereignty: Rise of democracy Westernization of the international system Lasting impact of the industrial revolution Growth of the multipolar system and the preservation  of the balance of power Shifting alliances and numerous major powers Goal: Stop any one power from becoming dominant Concert of Europe, 1815 UK, Russia, Prussia, Austria-Hungary, France (1818 after  Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle)
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Chapter2 - TheEvolutionofWorldPolitics Chapter2...

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