cze-history - Czech History Czech Moravian Empire (843 –...

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Unformatted text preview: Czech History Czech Moravian Empire (843 – 907) Premyslid Family (870 – 1306) John of Luxemburg, Charles IV., Hussitism Jagellonians Family (1478 – 1526) Habsburg Family (1526 – 1918) St. Wenceslaus, Premysl Otakar II. Luxemburg Family (1310 – 1437) St. Cyril and St. Methodius St. Cyril battle on Bílá hora, empress Marie Teresa Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic Czechoslovak Socialistic Republic Czechoslovak Federative Republic Czech Republic Czech (1918 – 1938; T. G. Masaryk) (1948 – 1989; communism) (1989 – 1992) (1993 – present) (1993 Great Moravian Empire (833 – 907) Great first western Slavic state 833 – after annexation of principality of 833 Nitra – formation of Great Moravian Empire (prince Mojmír I.) Empire 863 – invitation of Cyril a Methodius 863 (duke Rostislav I.) – effort of emancipation from the Frankish Empire influence Empire Svatopluk (870 – 894) – after St. Svatopluk Methodius death (885) admitted Franc Empire protection (payments for peace) – empire stabilization, expansion on East and South (see map) expansion fall of Empire (907) after Hungarian fall invasion (Mojmir II.) invasion St. Cyril (826 - 869) a St. Methodius (815 – 885) St. Slavic missionaries (brothers) invited Slavic to Great Moravia by prince Rostislav I. – effort for emancipation from the Franc Empire influence Franc inventors of Glagolitic alphabet – inventors used for Slavonic manuscripts used using of old Slavic language for using religious service (for common people) people) 863 – 885 mission on the Great 863 Moravia Moravia seat on Velehrad (Southern Moravia) St. Wenceslaus (907 – 935) St. main patron saint for Bohemia from Premyslid Family (ruling from duke family in Bohemia) duke peace payments to Frankish peace Empire Empire built rotunda of St. Vitus on built Prague Castle Prague consistent Christianization in the consistent whole Bohemian princedom whole murdered by his brother murdered canonization canonization Premysl Otakar II. (1233 – 1278) Premysl ruled in 1253 – 1278 Premyslid Family – king iron and golden Styria (marriage, 1252), Hungary Styria (marriage, 1260), expansion of the Bohemian state Bohemian foundation of royal cities and support of foundation economic development (king gold) economic ambitious – aspiration on the position of ambitious Holy Roman Empire king – leading crusades to Lithuania (Koningsberg, 1255) (king iron) (king Czech noble opposition (restricted by Czech Premysl) together with Rudolph I. Habsburg – battle of Durnkrut (1278; Hungary) – Premysl death Hungary) John the Blind Luxembourgish (1296 – 1346) John die out of the Premyslid Family (1306) marriage of John of Luxemburg with marriage Elisabeth the Premyslid (1310, crowned for the Bohemian king in 1311) the territorial enlargement of Bohemian territorial kingdom (Silesia, Northitalian cities) – never stay in the kingdom for the long time (tournaments, battles) (tournaments, motto: „It is gonna never be that Czech motto: king is running away from the battlefield“. Dying in the battle of Crecy (1346, hundred years war; the same day as the day of death Premysl Otakar II.) Premysl Charles IV. (1316 – 1378) Charles son of John of Luxemburg and Elizabeth son the Premyslid, educated in France (former name Wenceslaus) name king of Holy Roman Empire (1346) and king emperor (1355) emperor founder of Prague archbishopric (1344), founder Bohemian crown jewelry (1346), Charles University (1348), Karlstein (1348), Charles bridge (1357) etc. Charles marriage politics as the tool for regional marriage enlargement and politics (4 wives; added Palatinate, Lusatia), gained Brandenburg (1371) (1371) Hussites (1420 – 1434) Hussites burning of Master Jan Hus (1415, religious burning Council of Constance where he should defend himself) himself) protestant and reform movement in Roman protestant Catholic church relates with Master Hus heritage – to live according to the Bible, criticizing the church church foundation of city Tábor (where they decided to foundation live according to the Bible) live leader Jan Zizka (+1424), Hussites fought off 5 leader crusades against Bohemia crusades defeat of hussitism – battle of Lipany (1434) – defeat Hussites against Hussites Hussites negative economic impacts on the whole kingdom Battle of White Mountain (1620) of one of the battles in so called Thirty years one war (1618 – 1648) war catholic league (Habsburg) against catholic protestants protestants 21. 6. 1621 – execution of 27 Bohemian noblemen on Old Town Square in Prague for the participation in contrahabsburg uprising (fight for noble privileges and religious freedom – after Hussitism in Bohemia was religious toleration) Bohemia strengthen of Catholicism and strengthen confirmation of absolutistic regime of Habsburg – emigration wave (J.A. Komensky) Komensky) Jan Amos Komensky (1592 – 1670) Jan teacher of the nations (died in Naarden, NL) prostestant bishop Work: Informatory of nursery school Orbis pictus (first pictorial schoolbook in the world) Language Gate Opened (how to learn languages) Didactica Magna (contains principles of modern Didactica education, e.g.: education for all, free of charge and in mother tongue, compulsory school attendance, clearness of education, process from known to unknown, from simplicity to complexity of the knowing of the Nature, adequacy of the theme to the age, accent on praxis). Includes opinion on the education concept – splits education in 4 periods, each for 6 years : education 0–6 childhood – nursery school childhood 6 – 12 boyhood – general school boyhood 12 – 18 adolescenthood – grammar school 12 adolescenthood 18 – 24 youth – academy + 2 years of traveling 18 youth Maria Teresa (1717 – 1780) Mari empress from the Habsburg house enlightened ruler, number of reforms: Military service (administrative military Military districts; war with Prussia (1756 – 1763)) districts; justice (forbidding of right of torture) regional administration (attendance to the regional office as well as for qualified nonaristocrats; first compact lists of possessions of all subjects – registries) registries) education (1773) – secularizing of universities education (restriction of the Jesuits influence), prototypal schools, unification of requirements on schools and teachers as well, school hierarchy, teaching only in German teaching Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic (1918 – 1938) Czechoslovak Socialistic Republic (1948 – 1989) takeover of all power by communistic party Region of interest of USSR Czechoslovak Federal Republic (1989 – 1992) founders: T. G. Masaryk, E. Benes united, centralistic, national state based on the idea of united, „czechoslovakismus“) „c model and garantor was France Tomas Garrigue Masaryk – first Czechoslovak president (till 1935), Tomas after him dr. E. Benes after nationalities: Czech (6,7 mil; 50%), German (3,1 mil; 23%); Slovak (2 nationalities: mil; 23%), Hungarian (0,8 mil; 5,5%), Karpatorusíni (0,5 mil; 3,5%), others (0,5 mil; 4%) others continuing in democratic development before 1948 issue with national structure (Slovak vs. Czech) Czech Republic (1993 – present) Other famous Czechs Other František Palacký (1799 – 1876; historian) Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (1850 – 1938; first Czechoslovak president) Nobel Laureates: Jaroslav Heyrovský (chemistry; polarograph) Jaroslav Seifert (literature) Thank you for your attention Thank Made by Zdena Palupová and Jitka Müllerová ...
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