Lecture3 - while the science was starting. Ottoman Empire:...

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while the science was starting. .. Ottoman Empire: Mehmed II (1451-1481) Fall of Constantinople (1453) Bayezid II (1481-1512) Selim I (1512-1520) Battle of Chaldiran against Safavids (1514), conquest of Egypt (1517) Suleiman I (1520-1566) Conquered Belgrade, Rhodes, and most of Hungary before he was stopped at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed most of the Middle East in his conflict with the Safavids and large swathes of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Selim II (1566-1574) His Grand Vizier, Mehmed Sokollu, a Bosnian devsirme, controlled much of state affairs, and succeeded in concluding an honourable treaty with the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II, whereby the Emperor agreed to pay an annual "present" and granted the Ottomans authority in Moldavia and Walachia.
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England and France In 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, led an invasion of England. He defeated the English King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, and had himself crowned King of England. Following a period of civil wars and unrest in England the Anglo-Norman dynasty was succeeded by the Angevin Kings. At the height of their power the Angevins controlled Normandy and England. The King of England directly ruled more territory on the continent than the King of France himself. John of England inherited this great estate from King Richard I. However, Philip II of France acted decisively to exploit the weaknesses of King John, both legally and militarily, and by 1204 had succeeded in wresting control of most of the ancient territorial possessions and reduced Angevin hold on the continent to a few small provinces in Gascony, and the complete loss of the crown jewel of Normandy. By the early 14th century, many people in the English aristocracy were motivated to regain possession of these territories.
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Hundred Years' War
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Hundred Years' War Charles IV died without an heir in 1328. Under the rules of the Salic law adopted in 1316, the crown of France could not pass to a woman, nor could the line of kinship pass through the female line. Accordingly, the crown passed to the cousin of Charles, Philip of Valois, rather than through the female line to Charles' nephew, Edward, who would soon become Edward III of England. In the reign of Philip of Valois, the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power. However, Philip's seat on the throne was contested by Edward III of England and in 1337, on the eve of the first wave of the Black Death, England and France went to war in what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. The exact boundaries changed greatly with time, but French landholdings of the English Kings remained extensive for decades. Strong French counterattacks won back all English continental territories, except Calais which was captured in 1558 by the French. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death. Around 1340, France had a population of about 17 million, which by the end of the pandemic had declined by about one-half.
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Lecture3 - while the science was starting. Ottoman Empire:...

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