ppt_ch06_1 - Craig, Heritage of World th Civilization, 6...

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Unformatted text preview: Craig, Heritage of World th Civilization, 6 ed. Chapter 6 – Africa: Early History to Chapter 1000 C.E. 1000 Problems of Interpretation Question of Civilization Danger in constructing too narrow a definition Broader sense – civilization is associated of a Broader people’s intellectual, cultural and artistic traditions traditions Source Problem Stateless societies leave few records Oral historical tradition Archaeological research Records from outside observers - bias Physical Description Three and a half times bigger than U.S. Few natural harbors or islands Communication with interior difficult Position astride the equator – heat Sahara Desert Soils are tropical Water is scarce Abundant animal life Different Regions North Africa – Mediterranean coastal regions Nilotic Africa – modern Egypt and Sudan Sudan – belt of savannah below Sahara West Africa – desert and savannah west of Lake West Chad Chad East Africa – Ethiopian highlands to Rift Valley Central Africa – north of Kalahari Desert Southern Africa – Kalahari Desert to Cape of Southern Good Hope Good African Peoples Oldest hominid ancestor 1.5-1.8 million years ago – Great Rift Valley Modern humans Homo sapiens sapiens – also African Not as isolated as popularly believed African goods in Mediterranean and Indian African Ocean trade Ocean Nilotic Egypt connection to ancient world Carthaginian Punic state Massive internal movements of people Diffusion of Languages Linguistic diversity – 1000-3000 languages Four major language groupings Afro-Asiatic Nilo-Saharan Niger-Kongo Bantu – largest subgroup Khoisan Two late colonial arrivals Indo-European and Malayo-Polynesian Racial Distinctions Some interpreters linked patterns in civilization to Some apparent differences in appearance of African populations populations Lighter-skinned Africans in North Africa Dark-skinned Negroid peoples in sub-Saharan Yellowish-brown peoples in smaller numbers None of the theories really work, if only because None race is a problematic concept race In Africa the various populations were so mixed In that most Africans might best be considered to belong to one large race belong Early Saharan Cultures Wet Holocene period – 7500-2500 B.C.E. Southern Sahara was well-watered Climatic changes around 2500 B.C.E. Rapid desiccation Remains in Mali and Mauritania Mid-fifth millennium B.C.E. Pottery in Jenne – 1st millennium B.C.E. Sudanic peoples developed settled agriculture by Sudanic first millennium B.C.E. first Nok Culture Iron smelting probably invented in Africa Nok culture Northeastern Nigeria Jos plateau 900-200 B.C.E. Combined agriculture with cattleherding Earliest Iron Age culture of West Africa Extraordinary sculptural art Magnificent burial or ritual masks Kingdom of Kush Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nubians Earliest literate and politically unified Earliest civilization after pharonic Egypt civilization As early as 4th millennium B.C.E. Kerma – capital and major trading center Height between Middle and New Kingdoms of Height Egypt, 1700-1500 Egypt, Traded with Egypt Also took Nubian gold mines from Egypt Napatan Empire (Kushite) New Kushite empire Capital at Napata 10th century B.C.E.-4th century C.E. Royalty saw themselves as Egyptian Married own sisters, like pharaohs Royalty embalmed in pyramids Conquered Egypt in 8th century B.C.E. Ruled it for a century as Twenty-fifth dynasty Driven out of Egypt by Assyria around 650 B.C.E. Meroitic Empire (Kushite) Egyptian army sacked Napata in 591 B.C.E. Kushite capital moved south to Meroe Expanding south and west Center of iron industry by 6th century B.C.E. Center of expansive trade network Traded with Hellenistic-Roman world, Arabia, Traded India India Animal skins, ebony, ivory, gold, slaves, iron Era of prosperity Fine pottery Meroitic Political World Increasingly different than Egypt politically Kings ruled by customary laws If they broke taboos they committed suicide Royal election system Royal Although king a living god Matrilineal influence Long line of queens – Candaces Kandake – Meroitic word for “queen mother” Autocratic rule of monarch Meroitic Society and Religion Limited sources about societal structure Ruling class – monarchs, priests, nobility Intermediary classes – farmers, artisans Slaves – domestic and prisoners of war Religion Egyptian influence Amon Later unique local gods Apedemak – warrior god with lion’s head Aksumite Empire Northern Ethiopian highlands Mixing of African Kushitic speakers with Mixing Semitic speakers from southern Arabia Semitic Adulis – chief port Major ivory and elephant market Cosmopolitan commercial center Coinage in gold, silver and copper First tropical African state to mint coins Defeated the Kushite state Christian Aksum Early religions Polytheistic worship of natural phenomena Cosmopolitan – Jews and Buddhists King Ezana converted to Christianity in 4th century by Frumentius, a Syrian monk by Whole country converts Monophysite brand of Christianity Single, unitary view of Christ Aksum is isolated by rise of Islam Increasingly unique brand of Christianity Western and Central Sudan Settled agriculture by 1st century C.E. Augmented by iron tools Population explosion Regional and interregional trade First millennium B.C.E. urban centers Gao, Kumbi Jenne had population of 10,000 Sao, Chadic-speaking people – 600 towns Early urbanized areas combined farm with fishing Early and hunting and Trans-Saharan Trade Introduction of the domesticated camel Dromedary – one-humped Arabian camel Trading commodities Salt, gold, slaves, cola nuts, dates, horses Berber middlemen Three main routes Walata and Timbuktu to Taghaza to Morocco Timbuktu or Gao directly to Morocco Takmekka and Agades to Ghat to Libyan North Takmekka Africa Africa Sudanic Kingdoms Takrur – 5th century C.E. Fulbe peoples on Senegal River Gold trade Ghana – 5th-6th centuries C.E. Soninke peoples on Senegal and Niger Rivers Famous for their dominance of gold trade Kumbi – wealthy capital Semidivine ruler chosen by matrilineal descent Large army – including horsemen and archers Sudanic Kingdoms (cont.) Gao – before 8th century C.E. Songhai peoples on Niger River Forest trade – no gold until late Kanem – 8th-9th centuries C.E. Kanuri peoples northeast of Lake Chad Created nomadic federation of black tribal Created peoples peoples Controlled southern terminus of best transSaharan route African Subcontinent Central, Southern and East Africa Lack of sources - difficult to construct a detailed Lack history of the African subcontinent before 1000 history Khoisan Peoples Khoikhoi “Hottentots” Sheep- and cattle-herding pastoralists San “Bushmen” Mostly in Kalihari region Hunter-gatherers? “Primitive” stage of cultural evolution Bantu Migration Southern subcontinent – 400 languages Belong of single language group – Bantu Proto-Bantu arose in modern eastern Nigeria and Proto-Bantu Cameroon Cameroon Mass migration around beginning of Common Era Intermixed and adapted Great Zimbabwe and Mupungubwe Their success in accomplishing this is a mystery Apparently not military conquerors Strong social structure East Africa Long-distance trade Common along the coast Inland a more difficult issue Coastal trade with India, Arabia, Mediterranean Monsoon winds December-March From northeast April to August From southeast Long-Distance Trade Arab monopoly on long-distance trade Arabs settled in East African coastal towns Most coastal trading towns were independent Although Rhapta was an Arab dependency International influences Madagascar language of Malagasy is of Madagascar Malayo-Polynesian origins Malayo-Polynesian Bananas, coconut palms from Southeast Asia Imports – Persian Gulf pottery, Chinese porcelain Exports – Ivory, gold, slaves Inland East Africa Much more difficult to trace than coast Absence of written records and difficulty of Absence access access Linguistic clues tell of migrations of people Kushitic-speaking peoples – 2000 B.C.E. Nilotic-Saharan-speaking peoples – 1000 C.E. Lwo – absorbed new cultural elements Maasai – remained cattle pastoralists Melting pot of Kushitic, Nilotic, Bantu and Melting Khoisan groups Khoisan ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course HISTORY 210 taught by Professor St. john during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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