Spain'sRiseDeclineDutch - Let’s look at a Map Europe in...

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Unformatted text preview: Let’s look at a Map: Europe in 1580 Let’s Catholic- Southern Europe: Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Southern Poland, parts of the Holy Roman Empire, Ireland Poland, Lutheran- Scandinavia, Northern Germanic Holy Roman Empire Empire Calvinist and Presbyterian- Scotland, Netherlands, pockets around Europe; around Anglican - England, parts of Ireland Major Catholic Minorities in England Major Protestant Minorities in France – “Huguenots” The Golden Age of the Spanish Empire Spanish 1500-1650 A review of Chapter 17 review Sections 1, 2 and 3 Sections The Rise and Decline of the Spanish Empire 1500s – 1600s Empire When we last saw Columbus… When Where did he Where land? Where did he think he think landed? Conquistadors • Cortes: How Cortes: did he commit his troops to war with the Aztecs? Aztecs? • Results? Cortes meets the Aztecs Cortes Disadvantages: • Overwhelmingly outnumbered • Not on his “home” territory Advantages: Advantages: • Myth of Quetzalcoatal • Weapons Weapons steel swords armor crossbows • Horses Horses • Donna Marina, or Malinche, Donna the invaluable aide the 16th c Spanish Drawing Montezuma Montezuma Why would Montezuma let the Spaniards enter Why his capital city of Tenochtitlan – “the most beautiful city in the world”? beautiful Answer: Montezuma fears Cortes is the much feared God – Quetzalcoatl Quetzalcoatl After days of sight-seeing, Spaniards take After Montezuma as prisoner Montezuma Then, Aztec uprising against Spaniards – Then, Montezuma seems to be a puppet Montezuma Who killed Montezuma? Who War! War! Aztecs out for Spanish Aztecs blood blood Cortes and Marina flee Cortes • why don’t the Aztecs why follow? 1521 – Cortes returns to 1521 Tenochtitlan with a larger army that lays siege. Where does this army come from? come Pizarro Pizarro 1532 lands on the coast of Peru with 200 1532 soldiers soldiers “Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru” (Atahualpa) by John Everett Millais by The Demise of the Incas The How did Atahualpa’s absolute power lead to the How Inca’s downfall? Inca’s What are the Similarities between…: Pizarro and Atahualpa in Peru and Pizarro Cortes and Montezuma in Mexico? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7. 8. Spaniards outnumbered European weapons are superior Fervent desire for gold A “friendly” visit is arranged Local resentful natives help the Europeans Outbreak of European diseases among Indians Outbreak Ambush and capture of king Death of Indian rulers; Pizarro orders Atahualpa’s death Spaniards Explored Widely Spaniards Why? Why? • Gold, Glory, God (that is, to spread Christianity) The Ageing Governor of PR: Ponce de Leon The • What does he hope to find? • Desoto follows Exploring the Southwest Exploring Coronado – Great Plains, Coronado Grand Canyon Grand Desperate to find riches “El Dorado” San Lorenzo de El Escorial San Spain Under Philip II Spain r. 1556-1598 “When Spain moves, the whole world trembles.” San Lorenzo de Le Escorial • Palace Palace • Burial site of Spanish kings, Burial including Charles V and Philip II, also including Philip III and IV. Philip • Library and intellectual center for Counter Library Reformation Reformation Philip II’s Goals Philip Strengthen Spanish Strengthen monarchy and _________ monarchy • In Greece his navy defeated In the____________ the____________ Battle of Lepanto • ___________ were more difficult Revolts in The Netherlands Marries Mary Tudor, a Catholic, but when she dies… And another queen is killed…WHO? England proves his major challenge Queen Mary I - Bloody Mary Queen Became Queen after Became ________ ________ Restored _________ in Restored England, persecuted Protestants Protestants A political marriage to political ______, King of Spain!!! ______, Why did Spain become weaker? Why 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chain of Events… F and I’s Inquisition Unable to Unable manufacture manufacture Spending too much Spending gold and silver gold Inflation Spanish Armada Protestant forces 1588: A Historical Turning Point 1588: Spanish Art and Literature Spanish El Greco (the Greek) El • Painted Catholic Saints and Martyrs • Look at the next two paintings, Look compare Rembrant with El Greco Greco What do you notice about the What style? The content? style? Dutch Art: “The Clothmakers Guild” by Rembrandt, 1662 Rembrandt “The Burial of the The Count of Orgaz” Count El Greco “The Adoration of the The Shepherds” Shepherds” El Greco Don Quixote de la Mancha Miguel de Cervantes Satirized chivalry and Satirized traditional ways traditional Servant Sancho Panza Servant First novel ever - 1605 Philip II Fights a Revolt Philip United Provinces of the Netherlands Calvinist Netherlands rebel Calvinist against Philip II against • William of Orange (though he’s Catholic) – nationalism nationalism War: 1568-78 • Dutch sacrifice :___________? Nether=under or beneath (what?) • Southern provinces of the Southern Spanish Netherlands remain Spanish: later becomes the nation of ___________ ___________ The Netherlands flourishes The The individualistic Dutch • Tolerant • Officially Protestant • Many Spanish Jews flee to Holland Many Spanish • Puritans later go from England • …before they go to Massachusetts Commercial Revolution Commercial Capitalism Born Amsterdam: “Florence of the Amsterdam: north” north” • Joint stock companies • Commercial empire • Dutch East India Company Tulips from Ottoman Empire Spices and tea from _____ • Dutch West India Company Sugar from St. Maarten Notable Dutch JSC Notable Dutch East India Company… • 17 Dutchmen put their money 17 together together British East India Shipping Co. Which tried to capture Jack Sparrow. Which • They dealt in sugar, spices, beaver They pelts, and slaves (amongst others). In France, Mean Queen Catherine de Medici rules • Her Weakling sons Son king Charles has a Huguenot advisor She orders his advisor assassinated Sad, he tells her, leave none to accuse me. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572 12,000 Huguenots slaughtered in Paris alone Huguenots Up to 100,000 through months following in France Francois Dubois, Eye Witness Account of St. Barts Day Massacre Francois Dynastic War in France Dynastic Bourbon v Guise Catherine di Medici, mother of King Charles & daughter of Lorenzo of Florence was unhappy with Hueguenot Henry marrying into the family… Henry IV of Navarre Henry IV Emerges in France, Catholic v Protestant War (1569-89) Catholic Philip II of Spain’s support of Catholic family Philip backfired backfired Bourbon: Huguenot Guise: Catholic Results in: French nationalism • French choose a Bourbon, Henry IV • But Henry converts to Catholicism to promote unity especially But in Paris in King Henry issues the Edict of Nantes (1598) (1598) King • King Henry IV • Religious toleration • Huguenots may live in peace, just not in Paris Strengthening France: Cardinal Richelieu Increased French Nationalism Increased Henry’s son King Henry’s Louis XIII is weak, takes throne at 9 takes • Richelieu’s goals: 1. 2. 3. Restricted rights of Restricted Protestants Protestants Allied Kings with Allied middle class for support support Built up military to Built fight Hapsburgs fight • In the Thirty Years In War War What does Richelieu think of the common people of France? common Read primary source in packet in He was both Duke of He Richelieu & Cardinal in RCC in Effectively ran France Effectively from 1624-42 from Peace of Augsburg Ended in 1618: Thirty Years War 1618-1648 Thirty HRE Ferdinand II made enemies in HRE Catholic League v. Protestant Union • As a Hapsburg, other dynastic families hated him • Spark! Put down revolt in Lutheran Bohemia • German Lutheran peoples joined the fight The Thirty Years War: The Union Wins A Fight for Religion and Political Power • Lutheran Scandinavia jumps in to fight Roman Catholic Spain and HRE. • Under Richelieu, France fights for Protestants! • Warfare: primarily in the German lands • Millions die - 15 to 33% in areas of Germany The Triumph of Death Peter Bruegel’s depiction of the Thirty Years War Thirty Long Range Outcomes Long Peace of Westphalia 1648 • Princes of Germany could choose any religion Including Calvinism • Dutch Netherlands and Switzerland’s independence recognized • Germany was in ruins • Power of the Nation-State increased and role of the Church diminished Europe began to have firmer borders, fewer fights about who owns what. France emerges as most powerful in Europe • Hapsburgs and HRE lost power Locate the outline map in the packet Locate Follow directions; Add the Netherlands, Scotland and Denmark, too 1648 Hieronymus Bosch – Dutch Hieronymus The Garden of Earthly Delights (1504) Creation The Fall: Original Sin Enters the World Resulting Hell ...
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