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Unformatted text preview: THE MUGHAL EMPIRE World History Mrs. Davidovich BELLRINGER BELLRINGER Test yourself. What do you remember about India’s history? – Harappan civilization – Mauryan Rulers – Gupta Rulers Jot down that which you can recall in your notes. We will build onto it today. TARGET TARGET I can explain the rise and fall of the Mughal Empire. After the Aryans many others invaded India. Alexander the Great and other Greeks arrived in India. The ancient Persian Empire expanded its boundaries up to India. But the Persian Empire, like Alexander the Great, didn’t arrive to the center of present India, but to present day Pakistan and up to the borders of present India. But there were other Greeks who arrived in India and established kingdoms in India. Others to arrive in ancient India were Scythians, Kushans and Huns. These invaders also established some kingdoms in India. At a much later period there were Muslim invaders ­ Turks, Arabs, Afghans and others. And of course the Europeans ­ Portuguese, Danish, Dutch, French and English. In between Indians also established their own kingdoms and empires. These different kingdoms fought among themselves to expand their kingdom boundaries. But never in Indian history was there a kingdom that ruled the whole of India. These different kingdoms that were established in different parts in India created different aspects of Indian history for different regions of Different regions of India adore different heroes and empires from India’s past. For example people from Maharashtra in west India adore the Maratha Empire which was created in Maharashtra and ruled over large parts of India in the 17th and 18th century. Their most respected hero is Shivaji who created the Maratha Empire. People of Tamil Nadu have their own Tamil originated heroes and empires like the Chola Empire that ruled south India and some parts of north India between the 9th to 13th century. For some period the Cholas also reigned over parts of south Asia, including Sri Lanka, and some islands now parts of Malaysia and Indonesia. At other periods in Indian history other empires were established from Tamil Nadu among them the Pandya Empire and the Pallava Empire. To make more sense of my rambling… To make more sense of my rambling… Two famous empires in Northeast India were the Gupta and Mauryan Empires, which ruled most of North India and large parts of South India. One of the Mauryan Emperors, Asoka, had perhaps the largest Indian Empire which covered almost the whole of present India. (Thus he is idolized by individuals in that particular region.) The Mughals The Mughals After the fall of the Gupta rulers, many independent states, territories, dynasties, and empires existed throughout the whole of India. The Mughals are perhaps the most famous. At their height they controlled the whole of north India, present day Pakistan, and large parts of south India. In their empire they had many kings and rulers who were subjected to them. In west India, there were many local rulers who were subjected to the Mughal Empire. These rulers of West India were called Maratha (or Maharatha). Up until the Mughal Empire, different Maratha rulers acted sometimes as independent rulers and at other times subjected to different larger kingdoms or empires including the Mughals. Babur Babur 1300s – Turkish Muslims controlled India 1500s – their power weakened Rajputs challenged the Turkish Muslims and left India open to Mongol attack Babur attacked the sultanate of Delhi and won a battle in which he was greatly outnumbered. He est. the Mughal Empire Akbar Akbar Babur’s grandson Took throne at 13 Reigned from 1556 – 1605 Heightened influence of Rajputs Improved tax system Supported the arts Tolerant of religions Allahu Akbar – divine ruler Economy improved Infrastructure – strong and appealing Height of Mughals – Shah Height of Mughals – Shah Jahan Ruled from 1628­1658 Empire extended into the South Architecture – Taj Mahal and Hall of Private Audience (in Red Fort at Delhi) Military campaigns against Persians Increased taxes – ½ crops raised – infuriated people Aurangzeb Aurangzeb Took throne in 1657 – (scandalous) – his rule led to eventual collapse Sunni Muslim – – – – – – ended spending on buildings/monuments Banned majority of celebrations Strict observance of Islam holy laws Oppressed other sects of Muslims/other religions Crushed protestors Died in 1707 Aurangzeb tried to enforce Islam and Islamic law on his citizens. As a result the Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji revolted and declared independence. Shivaji was also nominated emperor of the Marathas. The Marathas enlarged their empire by taking control over more Mughal territories and other rulers territories. After Shivaji’s death in 1680 the Maratha people had lot of interior crisis. Sometimes the different Maratha parties acted as one power and at other times as separate independent powers (sometimes fighting each other.) After Aurengzeb’s death in 1707 the Mughals started collapsing into separate independent kingdoms even though there was always an acting Mughal Emperor. In this period of chaos some European powers – English, French, Dutch, Danish and Portuguese ­ began controlling Indian territories. ...
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