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Unformatted text preview: The Gokturk, China and the Five Dynasties Wang Gungwu, The Structure of Northern China during the Five Dynasties, Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1967. Reference Readings on the Uyghur: Barfield, Thomas, The Perilous Frontier, Ch 4 pp131
163; Sinor, Denis, “Sending princesses to nomads”, Uyghur Empire in Studies in Medieval Inner Asia, Part V, pp1819; Drompp, Michael, “The Uyghur Chinese Conflict of 840848, in Di Cosmo, Nicola, Warfare in Inner Asian History (5001800), pp7396. 02/18/12 1 The Gokturk, China, and the Five Dynasties The Gokturk Empire (552630) The Gokturk and the Sui (581617) The Gokturk and the Tang (617906)
The Shatuo Turks The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907960) The Shatuo Turks and the Five Dynasties Period Reference: The Uyghur Empire: The Uyghurs and the Tang 02/18/12 2 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Five Dynasties: Later Liang (Han) Later Tang (Shantuo Turk) 後後 (936947); 11 years
後後 (936947); 11 years Later Han (Shantuo Turks) 02/18/12 後 後 (923 – 936); 13 years Later Jin (Shantuo Turks) 後後 後 907923); 16 years 後後 (947 – 950); 3 years
(947 – 950); 3 years Later Zhou (Han) Ten Kingdoms (Han): Chu
Wu Wuyue Jingnan Former Shu Min Southern Han
Later Shu Northern Han Southern Tang 3 Introduction The Gokturk known as Tujue ( 後後 ) in medieval Chinese sources, established the first known Turkic state around 552. They originated from the northern corner of the area presently called the Xinjiang Yughur Autonomous Region. They were the first Turkic tribe to use the name "T ürk" as a political name; economic base of the Gokturk was horse breeding.
Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, share some cultural and historical traits. 02/18/12 4 Introduction (2)
Introduction (2) In the 5th century, the head of the a Gokturk clan went to the Rouran (Juan Juan) 後後 (460545), who dominated the steppe, 後後 (460545), who dominated the steppe, seeking protection from China The Gokturk were famed metal smiths and were granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet –this is why the Chinese called them Tujue 後後 . 02/18/12 5 Introduction (3) In 546, the Gokturk fought for the Rouran, defeating the Gao
che 後後 and capturing 50,000 tents. Their leader, Tümän 後後 asked for a marriage alliance with the Rouran as a reward. But the Rouran refused the request as they despised the Gokturk who worked in the Rouran iron mines and were called “blacksmith slaves” (duannu 後後 ).
The Gokturk conquered the Rouran and established their own empire.
Tümän granted his brother, Istami, the right to rule over the west and when Tümän died in 553, his brother allowed Tümän’s son, Keluo 後後 , to become the supreme ruler of the empire. When Keluo died, he was succeeded by his brother Mugan 後後 who extended the Gokturk empire until it reached from 後後 who extended the Gokturk empire until it reached from Manchuria to the Caspian Sea. 02/18/12 6 Introduction (4) The Gokturk practiced fraternal succession and succession had been stable from brother to brother until all of Tümän’s sons had died.
In 576, Tardu, (descended from Istami, Tümän’s brother) became the senior male of his generation and outranked the sons of his cousins; he felt that his lineage should now rule. This split the Gokturk Empire into two parts (584) the Eastern Gokturk (Dong Tujue 後後後 ) and the Western Gokturk (Xi Tujue 後後後 ).
Map of the Western (purple) and Eastern (blue) Gokturk at their height. Lighter areas show direct rule; darker areas show spheres of influence 02/18/12 7 Introduction (5)
Introduction (5) The Sui and the Tang played the two Gokturk groups against each other and the Eastern Gokturk became formally subordinate to the Chinese Emperor.
The Western Gokturk leader Tardu, almost succeeded in reuniting the Gokturk empire around 600 but the Chinese caused a revolt of his vassals, and Tardu died in 603.
By the end of the 700s, the Gokturk brought about their own end by constantly fighting within the ruling tribes. In 744, the Uyghur, drove out the Eastern Gokturk rulers and established the second great Mongolian empire reaching from the Caspian Sea to Manchuria (744840). 02/18/12 8 The Gokturk and China Towards the end of the Northern Dynasties Period, the Gokturk received gifts from both the Northern Zhou and the Northern Qi courts; they also acted as mercenaries for them. The Eastern Gokturk looked upon a divided northern China between the Northern Zhou and the Northern Qi as an area to exploit. The Northern Zhou asked for a daughter of the Gokturk khan and was granted this favor in 565; each year the Northern Zhou gave the Gokturk 100,000 pieces of silk. The Northern Qi also gave the Gokturk riches so it would not side with its enemies. The Gokturk leader felt that his “two children to the south (the emperors of the Northern Zhou and Northern Qi) are always filial and obedient” so he should not fear poverty. 02/18/12 9 The Gokturk and China:
Sui Dynasty The Sui dynasty (581619), was much stronger than either the Northern Qi or the Northern Zhou so the Gokturk were not able to raid China successfully.
During the reign of Sui Yangdi (r.605618), the Western Gokturk were only a minor problem as the Gokturk Khan’s mother was a Chinese who lived in the Sui capital as a hostage and acted as a liaison person. When the Western Khan showed some independence, Sui Yangdi set up a puppet in his place.
The Eastern Gokturk were a threat along Sui’s northern frontier so the Sui emperors repaired and extended the Great Wall. 02/18/12 10 The Gokturk and China:
Sui Dynasty (2) The Sui policy was to weaken the Gokturk as well as use them against Sui’s enemies. Sui Yangdi: Kept the sons and nephews of the Gokturk khans in the Sui capital for “education”; Settled the Gokturk within the Chinese borders; Gave tributes and return gifts – Chinese silk for Gokturk horses, etc.
In 618 Sui Yangdi was murdered and Sui collapsed.
The Gokturk happily received envoys, with gifts, from all rebel leaders against the Sui. 02/18/12 11 The Gokturk and China:
The Gokturk and China:
Sui Dynasty (3) They also received many refugees including part of the Sui court with whom the Gokturk leader was related through marriage. They supported different groups of rebels with horses and small numbers of troops but the Gokturk leader himself did not take part. The Gokturk elite at that time had traditional Chinese education but placed strong emphasis on martial virtues and personal participation in Gokturk cultural traits.
These families were a mix of old frontier Chinese, Xianbei, Xiongnu and Gokturk backgrounds but over the years had lost specific tribal ties and become a social class with strong aristocratic traditions. 02/18/12 12 The Gokturk and China:
The Gokturk and China:
During the rebellions against the Sui dynasty, Li Yuan (r.618
626), the first emperor of the Tang, received help from the Gokturk by promising them all the loot taken during the campaigns. During the reign of the second Tang emperor, there were widespread revolts within the Gokturk due to natural disasters (629) . The Tang sent large numbers of troops and Gokturk leaders surrendered. Within a few years, the Gokturk tribes either went over to the Tang or fled west. China’s problem was what to do with the large number of Gokturk now under its control.
02/18/12 The Gokturk and China:
The Gokturk and China:
Tang Dynasty (2) The emperor decided to do the following: Divided them into small tribes, Chose 500 leaders from the Gokturk elite to rule over them, Chose 100 to serve at court, Summoned prominent families to move to Chang’an. Incorporated the Gokturk tribal structure into the Tang government and Gokturk leaders became Tang officials; the Gokturk now carried Chinese titles and fought by their side in their wars.
For the next 50 years, Tang Taizong was accepted as ruler over both the steppe and China and the Gokturk were under Chinese rule for over 50 years (630682). 02/18/12 14 The Gokturk and the Tang (3) Gokturk troops under the Tang banner expanded China’s borders deep into central Asia. By 659, the Tang Emperor of China could claim to rule the entire Silk Road as far as Persia.
After Taizong’s death, the Eastern Gokturk reunited again attacked China and China returned to the defensive policies used by the Han. The Gokturk tried to attack the Chinese frontier but failed as the Tang was able to attack the Gokturk before they were fully organized and a number of tribal leaders abandoned the frontier for the old Gokturk homeland in Mongolia. 02/18/12 15 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The Five Dynasties in the North succeeded each other. Two of the five were ruled by persons of Han origin– the first and the last the Later Liang and the Later Zhou. Three of the five – Later Tang, Later Jin, and Later Han – were ruled by the Shatuo Turks who had descended from the Western Gokturk.
The Ten Kingdoms, in the South existed at the same time occupying different parts of southern China. 02/18/12 16 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (2)
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (2) This Period was a result of the disintegration of the Tang when power went from the centre to the provinces.
The Tang had created a system of regional military governors, jiedushi 後後後 , to guard the frontiers. The governors had started as agents of the court responsible for logistics and troop support in the border provinces but they became more powerful as the central government became weaker. In the 8th century, these governors gradually had authority over civil as well as military affairs. Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms ()
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms () A century of struggle between the centre and the borders resulted in the rebellion led by Huang Chao (d.880). His army plundered and burnt several cities, in 880 Huang Chao's forces sacked both Chang’an and Luoyang, the biggest cities in China.
The Tang asked for help from the Shatuo Turks, led by Li Keyong 後後後 . Li recaptured Chang’an and the Tang emperor was returned to the capital (883); Li was rewarded with the military governorship of much of northern China. Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (5)
Huang Chao was finally defeated by a coalition of Li Keyong and Zhu Wen 後後 . Zhu had been a lieutenant under Huang Chao but had surrendered to the Tang. He surrendered to the Tang Dynasty, helped to suppress the rebellion and was named governor of Kaifeng.
After the Huang Chao (d.880) Rebellion (875884), the military governors were de facto independent. The court had to use armies in or near the capital to oversee the governors; these palace armies were often led by eunuchs. The use of eunuchs and their increase in power was resented by both the civil and military officials. 02/18/12 19 Five Dynasties: Five Dynasties: The Later Liang (907923) In time, Zhu Wen 後後 (852–912), became the most powerful 後後
military governor in North China. He tried to get rid of eunuch power, killing 700 of them, and forced the Tang emperor to relocate from Chang’an (Sian) to Luoyang in 903. He assassinated the emperor in 904 and ruled through a 13
year old puppet; three years later he forced his puppet to abdicate and proclaimed the founding of the Later Liang Dynasty with himself as emperor.
Many of the other warlords had declared their own independence and not all recognized Zhu Wen as emperor.
Zhu Wen was murdered by his son and the Later Liang dynasty ended when it was conquered by the Shatuo Turks leading to the rule of three successive Shatuo Turk dynasties. Five Dynasties: Five Dynasties: The Later Tang (923936) The strongest enemy of Zhu Wen, of the Later Liang, was the Shatuo 後後 Turk, Li keyong 後後後 , who fought under the slogan, 後後 Turk, Li keyong “Restoration of the Tang”. The Tang had adopted the leader of the Shatuo Turks into the imperial family and gave him the name of “Li”.
By the early 890s, Li Keyong was a threat to Zhu Wen who then tried to alienate Li Keyong’s relations with the Tang court.
Li Cunxu 後後後 , son of Li Keyong, defeated the Later Liang armies along the Yellow River, ending the dynasty in 923. He then proclaimed himself as the successor of the Tang emperor (related by the Li surname – “brothers”). Within a few months, the Later Tang swept away the Later Liang and unified much of North China.
Li Cunyu was killed by his army during a mutiny in 925 and was succeeded by a relative, Li Siyuan 後後後 .
後後後 Five Dynasties: Five Dynasties: The Later Tang (923936) (cont.) When Li Siyuan died, he was succeeded by his son, Li Conghou 後後後 who was overthrown by his adopted brother, Li 後後後 who was overthrown by his adopted brother, Li Congke 後後後 , who usurped the throne. The Later Tang, at its height, controlled more territory than did the Later Liang. The largest expansion of the Later Tang occurred in 925 when they conquered the Former Shu State, centered in presentday Sichuan. However, a Later Shu state was again restored 10 years later, one year before the fall of the Later Tang.
The Later Tang ended as the result of a rebellion led by the emperor’s brotherinlaw. Five Dynasties: Five Dynasties: The Later Jin (936946) In 936, Shi Jingtang 後後後 , the brotherinlaw, of the last Later Tang emperor, rebelled with the help of the Qidan 後後 of 後後 of Manchuria, who had been allies of the Later Tang but now turned against it. Shi took over Luoyang and established the Later Jin 後後
(936946) and gave 16 prefectures around modern Beijing (936946) and gave 16 prefectures around modern Beijing to the Qidans in return for their help. He also gave the Qidan annual tributes and the Qidan began to view the Later Jin as their puppet state and tried to take it over for themselves. 23 Five Dynasties: Five Dynasties: Later Jin (936947) (cont.) Shi Jingtang’s successor listened to the advice of an official, who was antiQidan, and it led to a threeyear war that ended the Jin dynasty. The emperor was deposed by the Qidan and lived in Manchuria until his death.
The Qidan overran the Jin capital at Kaifeng with help from key officials of the Jin court and began to try and rule directly. The Qidan (Yelu Yuan 後後後 : r.947951) proclaimed a Liao 後後後 : r.947951) proclaimed a Liao dynasty (9071125) ruling the 16 prefectures around modern Beijing. They tried to occupy the territories they had conquered from the Later Jin but were unsuccessful as the Shatuo Turks refused to submit to the Qidan. Five Dynasties:
The Later Han (947950) Rebellions arose and another Shatuo general, Liu Zhiyuan 後後後
, seized Luoyang and Kaifeng and declared a new dynasty, , seized Luoyang and Kaifeng and declared a new dynasty, with himself as emperor. As he had the same surname Liu as the imperial family of the Han he called his dynasty, Han (947 – 950).
His successor listened to the advice of his officials and attacked the Qidan who had kept the 16 provinces ceded to them by the Later Jin. The Empress Dowager Li tried to advise the young emperor against doing so but he would not listen and she had to stand by and watch him murdered by the military. A puppet was placed on the throne for a month with the Empress Dowager as regent. 02/18/12 25 Five Dynasties: Five Dynasties: Later Han (947951) (cont.) The regent, Empress Dowager Li, was thewife of the Liu Zhiyuan, founder of the Later Han, and was especially trusting of one of her officials, Guo Wei 後後 . Guo Wei had worked for Shi Jingtang (founder of the Later Jin) who had found him indispensable. ED Li, finally deposed the child puppet emperor and gave Guo Wei the throne in a peaceful transfer of power.
Guo Wei declared a new dynasty, the Later Zhou.
Meanwhile, a member of the Later Han imperial family, Liu Chong, set up a Northern Han regime in Taiyan and asked the Qidan for help to defeat the Later Zhou. Five Dynasties: Later Zhou (951960)
Five Dynasties: Later Zhou (951960) Guo Wei ruled for only three years as his health deteriorated. He had started out by campaigning against the Qidan by attacking their protectorate the Northern Han set up by Liu Chong. The invasion resulted in the assassination of the newly enthroned Qidan ruler. Guo Wei was succeeded by his adopted son, Chai Rong 後後
後後 Chai Rong was a brilliant general and within 6 years he had expanded the dynasty. Chai Rong attacked the Qidan Empire to recover the 16 prefectures but Chai became ill and died leaving a boy emperor on the throne. End of the Five Dynasties
End of the Five Dynasties The following year, the Later Zhou general, Zhao Kuangyin 後
後後 staged a coup and took the throne for himself establishing 後後 staged a coup and took the throne for himself
the Song dynasty.
This marks the official end of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Over the next two decades, Zhao Kuangyin and his successor Zhao Kuangyi (his brother) defeated all of the other remaining 10 kingdoms, conquering Northern Han in 979 and reunifying much of China by 982.
However, the 16 prefectures were still under the Qidan and western China was ruled by the Tanguts (Tibetan origin).
This remained a problem for the Song dynasty. 02/18/12 28 Reference: The Uyghur Empire The Uyghur "Uyghur" 後後後 was one of the largest and most 後後後 was one of the largest and most enduring Gokturkic peoples living in Central Asia.
8.68 million Uyghurs (2004) live primarily in the Xinjiang; some live in Taoyuan, Hunan, as well as Beijing and Shanghai.
There are also existing Uyghur communities in Kakazhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Ubekistan and Gokturkey.
The earliest use of the term 'Uyghur' (Weihu) was during the Northern Wei Dynasty (386534 CE) – part of the Gaoche.
They were a tribal federation ruled first by the Xiongnu, then by the Rouran (460545), by the Hepthalites (541565) and then by the Eastern Gokturk (GorGokturk). 02/18/12 Hepthalites (also known as White Huns, the Yanda 後後 or the Hua 後 a 後後 or the Hua a
nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and 29
northern India in the 4th to the 6th centuries) The Uyghur Empire (2)
The Uyghurs were, in some ways, similar to the Gokturk in customs, titles, and political organization but their political structure was more stable and they developed a greater degree of civilization. They practiced lineal succession; power was passed to sons unless the successor was assassinated and replaced by an opponent who would Map of the Uyghur Khaganate and areas under its dominion (in then be succeeded by his son. yellow) at its height, c. 820 AD. They survived on the silk trade and gifts from China and remained at peace as Tang allies.
02/18/12 The Uyghurs and the Tang
The Tang court asked the Uyghurs for help against the An Lushan rebellion (75563) and the Uyghur heirapparent led a force into China with 4,000 horsemen. In late 756 the Uyghurs helped China to reclaim their two old capitals, Chang’an and Luoyang. There was a high price for this help as the Uyghurs looted Luoyang and were finally stopped when the city elders bribed them with enormous quantities of silk and embroidery. The Uighurs received two Tang princesses in marriage and was given a third in 821. They were also given an annual gift of 20,000 rolls of silk and their leaders received honorary titles and gifts. They were paid 40 pieces of silk for every horse brought to China while on the steppe a horse was only worth one piece of silk.
02/18/12 The Uyghurs and the Tang (2)
The Uyghurs took tens of thousands of the poorest quality of horses to Tang annually. – the Tang could not refuse but often withheld payment for years. The Uyghur victories for China had restored Tang power but had not put an end to the disorder. Around 825, rebellions broke out against the Uyghur throne and in 839 a severe winter killed much of the livestock. In 840, at the invitation of a rebel Uyghur chief, Kirghiz forces entered the empire killed the khan and forced the Uyghurs to migrate to Xinjiang and Gansu and the Central Asian steppes. Groups of Uyghurs also fled south to the Tang border. The first group to arrive, about 30,000, were aristocrats led by the brother of the former ruler who had been assassinated. The Tang at first refused to grant asylum and urged them to return to their former homeland as the Tang was afraid 32
that the Kirghiz might attack if asylum was granted. The Uyghurs and the Tang (3) The Tang was also afraid that settlement of large numbers of nonHan populations within their borders might create trouble.
A second group of refugees of about 100,000 arrived accompanied by a Tang princess – aunt of the then Tang emperor, Wuzong (r.814846).
The leader of this group claimed to be the new ruler of the Uyghur and asked for assistance to fight against the Kirghiz.
The Tang asked that the princess be sent to Chang’an. She had lived for 22 years in an isolated country which was bleak and cold – in felt walls and woolen curtains and had to eat and drink foods that were not palatable to her. She had been captured by the Kirghiz but was later rescued by her husband and freed by a Chinese detachment. 02/18/12 33 The Uyghurs and the Tang (4)
The Uyghurs and the Tang (4)
In 843, The princess finally arrived in Chang’an where she was snubbed by the other imperial princesses and had to acknowledge the Uyghur ungratefulness for China’s kindnesses and her inability to pacify the foreigners. The Tang had expected her to bring about a change in Uighur policies; yet she had no power in the Chinese court. Her request for cattle and sheep to feed the famine
stricken Uighurs was not met. In the mid 840s, the Tang court was faced with the problem of how to deal with the two major groups as well as the other splinter groups all asking for asylum and assistance. The Tang continued to refused military assistance but 34
02/18/12 promised to give them grain. The Uyghurs and the Tang (5)
At the same time, the Tang beefed up the troops at the borders. The Tang admitted the first group and the leaders of the group were given positions and titles and incorporated into the Tang army but the second group refused to submit to the Chinese. The Tang ordered the Uyghur army unit to be dispersed and sent to different commanders; they refused and were massacred. The Qidan attacked the Uyghur and in 848, the Kirghiz, with an army of 70,000, wiped out the remaining Uyghurs and those who escaped went to Gansu. The Tang welcomed the collapse of the Uyghurs but without the Uyghurs, the Tang: Had no help to put down internal rebellions; There was no barrier between the Tang and the Qidans of 35
the Manchurian steppe. Next Week The Qidans and the Liao Dynasty 02/18/12 Barfield, Thomas, The Perilous Frontier,” pp 164176; Sinor, Denis, Inner Asia, a Syllabus, “Marriage, Kinship and Succession under the Ch’itan Rulers of the Liao Dynasty (9071125) in Holmgren, Jennifer, Marriage, Kinship and Power in Northern China, Part V, pp 4491.
Twitchett, Denis & Fairbank, John K., The Cambridge History of China: The Alien Dynasties, (v2). pp 189214. 36 ...
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