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20ElecCamp_bw_ - American Government Lecture 20 Political...

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American Government Lecture 20 - Political Participation via Elections and Campaigns
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Announcement Exams graded by Tuesday Reminder: If you are writing an Extra Credit paper you must clear your topic with me Opportunity for Extra Credit on Exam 3 http://rutgers-econ.sona-systems.com/ 3 pts for showing up to: Group Decision-Making Under Uncertainty
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Voting and Elections Major considerations Who votes? Eligibility Districting How do they vote? How do you determine a winner? The design of an election can determine: Who participates What decision is made How politics functions
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Districts Redistricting Done every 10 years after Census Each State given House seats by population Identifying voter districts important Originally done by geography Led to misrepresentation Reynolds v. Sims (1964) • “One person, one vote” • House districts need to have equal populations • Leads to decennial redistricting to redraw districts with equal populations
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Gerrymandering Eldridge Gerry Member of Founding Generation Created a district shaped like a salamander Allowed him to easily win reelection Two forms: Cracking Stacking
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Districting Districting Forming political boundaries Typically arises organically Towns, counties and states Redistricting Reforming political boundaries Arises through necessity • Population equality • Geographic needs Gerrymandering Reforming political boundaries to achieve a goal Arises through intention Maximize electoral efficiency and political strength
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AndersenLand A state of 10 people Has 2 districts North and South Fair based on size – And pop Over time 10 more people move in Different kind of people 2 districts become ≠ Must redistrict to bring populations equal How? N S
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Andersenville: A District of 25 People Receives 5 seats in the House One seat per 5 people Rutgers Party wants to seize advantage Over PSU Party 16 People are RU fans, 9 are PSU 2/3 Rutgers, 1/3 LU What to do? Fairness Crack Stack
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Andersenville R’s are Rutgers Party voters L’s are LU Party voters Each district has to have 5 voters How does R do best? R R R R R R S S S R R S S S R R S S S R R R R R R
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Fair Plan - Makes straight sensible lines R R R R R R S S S R R S S S R R S S S R R R R R R R R R R R R S S S R R S S S R R S S S R R R R R R or Both cases give PSU 3 to RU’s 2
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Stacking Cluster voters together Reduce their impact Rutgers gains seats 4-1 R R R R R R S S S R R S S S R R S S S R R R R R R
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Cracking R R R R R R S S S R R S S S R R S S S R R R R R R Split PSU up RU gains all 5!!!
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PSU gets 4 more Now a majority 13-12 RU can’t hold them out Fair leads to 4 or 3 seats to PSU What to do? R
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course 790 104 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '08 term at Rutgers.

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20ElecCamp_bw_ - American Government Lecture 20 Political...

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