burge_ch7_notes

burge_ch7_notes - Chapter 7 Molecular Geometries and...

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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Molecular Geometries and Bonding Theories
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Shapes of molecules Shapes of molecules W Lewis structures only indicate what is bonded to what and where the electrons are W It says nothing about the shape of the molecule W Shapes of molecules are very important where it reacts what it reacts with
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved The VSEPR model The VSEPR model W The main force that determines the shape is the repulsive force between the negatively charged electrons W The valence electrons are are outermost and therefore interact more. W V alence S hell E lectron P air R epulsion model assumes that The only important force is the repulsion of valence shell electrons The electron pairs move as far apart as possible
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved The basic shapes The basic shapes plus linear
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Bond angles Bond angles W The bond angles of the basic shapes are Linear - 180° Trigonal planar - 120° Tetrahedral - 109.5° Trigonal bipyramidal - 90°, 120° Octahedral - 90° W Other factors can cause some variation from these angles
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Determining shape Determining shape W Identify the central atom and draw Lewis structure The least electronegative atom will be the central atom, except H can never be the central atom W Count the number of things around the central atom. That determines the shape 1 or 2, linear HCl, CO 2 3 trigonal planar BF 3 4 tetrahedral CH 4 5 trigonal bipyramidal PCl 5 6 octahedral SF 6
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Molecules with lone pairs Molecules with lone pairs W Lone pairs are just other “things” H 2 O - the oxygen has 4 things around it, 2 Hs and 2 lone pairs The shape is tetrahedral, but 2 arms are taken up by lone pairs making the molecule bent, angular or “v” shaped
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved VSEPR Notation VSEPR Notation W Central atom is indicated by A W Other atoms (ligands) are symbolized by X W Lone pairs are indicated by E W Example H 2 O is AX 2 E 2 W Radical electrons are treated as lone pairs
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Distorting effect of lone pairs Distorting effect of lone pairs W
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burge_ch7_notes - Chapter 7 Molecular Geometries and...

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