burge_ch9_notes

burge_ch9_notes - Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous...

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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Types of solutions Types of solutions W Conductance of solutions Strong electrolytes readily conduct electricity Weak electrolyte conduct electricity weakly Non-electrolytes don’t conduct electricity at all
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Strong electrolytes Strong electrolytes W Soluble ionic compounds W Ions dissociate completely W Concentrations of ions Have to keep track of the stoichiometry For example, [Cl - ] in CaCl 2 (aq) = 2×[CaCl 2 ]
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Acids Acids W The definition of an acid has changed with time W For now, an acid is a molecule that contains a transferable proton Too narrow a definition, learn a better one in 162 W The acidic hydrogen atom is the atom in a compound that can be transferred in inorganic compounds it is written first (HCl, HClO, …) organic acids contain the group -COOH. Acetic acid can be written HCH 3 COO or CH 3 COOH
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Bases Bases W The definition of a base has changed with the definition of acids W For now, we will consider a base as any substance that produces OH - in water. W Most are hydroxides (NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 , …) W Some are not NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq)
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Strong vs. weak Strong vs. weak W The acid hydrogen associates very closely with water, so we write it as H + (aq) W Strong acids and bases dissociate completely. Weak ones only partially dissociate. W Example When HCl is dissolved, all that you get is H + and Cl - . There is no HCl(aq), as such With 1M CH 3 COOH, 99% is CH 3 COOH and 1% is CH 3 COO - + H +
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Strong acids Strong acids W All acids are weak, except for HBr HCl HI HNO 3 HClO 4 HClO 3 H 2 SO 4
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Strong bases Strong bases W Any soluble hydroxide Group I hydroxides Group II hydroxides
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Weak bases Weak bases W Weakly soluble hydroxides W Many nitrogen-containing molecules NH 3 and its derivatives (amines) CH CH 3 NH NH 2 (CH (CH 3 ) 2 NH NH (CH (CH 3 ) 3 N Hydrazine H 2 NNH NNH 2
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Acidic and Basic Periodic Acidic and Basic Periodic Properties Properties 18 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 Li Be B C N F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K C aG eA s S e B r Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba Tl Pb Bi Po At Fr Ra Acidic Amphoteric Basic
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Example Example W CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 W MgO + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 W Al 2 O 3 + 3H 2 O 2Al(OH) 3 W Al(OH) 3 + xsH 2 O Al(OH) 4 -
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Reactions between strong Reactions between strong electrolytes electrolytes W Solutions of strong electrolytes are entirely ions W Ions that don’t interact stay in solution W Ions that do will precipitate out W Example AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights
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burge_ch9_notes - Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous...

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