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burge_ch10_notes - Chapter 10 Energy Changes in Chemical...

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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved What is What is thermochemistry thermochemistry ? ? W Chemical equations tell us what and how much reacts W There is more to chemical reactions Some reactions release energy Some reactions require energy W The study of the relationship between energy and chemical reactions is thermochemistry
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Definitions Definitions W Energy – ability to do work (move massive objects W System – what we are looking at W Surroundings – everything else W Heat – transfer of energy without doing work
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved What is heat? What is heat? 1. Temperature 2. Speed of particles. 3. Transfer of energy
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Energy transfers Energy transfers W Energy transfers are directional System is whatever we are considering Surroundings are everything else W Types of energy kinetic energy potential energy electrical W We are only considering kinetic energy W Random motion due to kinetic energy called thermal motion
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Relationship between the Relationship between the system and the surroundings system and the surroundings W An open system allows for the exchange of both matter and energy between the system and the surroundings A beaker A match W A closed system prevents the exchange of matter, but allows energy to be exchanged freely W An isolated system cannot exchange either matter or energy with the surroundings
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Direction of transfer Direction of transfer W Any transfer of energy from the system to the surroundings is an exothermic process W Any transfer of energy from the surroundings to the system is an endothermic process
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Exothermic process Exothermic process
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Endothermic process Endothermic process
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Example Example W Exothermic burning gasoline hot soup cooling ice freezing W Endothermic dissolving NH 4 Cl in water photosynthesis boiling water
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved State functions State functions W A function that only depends on the initial and final states is called a state function W A function that DOES depend on how it got from point A to point B is called a path function W Examples of state functions altitude bank balance distance between 2 places W Examples of path functions distance travelled q total amount spent each month
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved The 1 The 1 st st Law of Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics W Thermochemistry is all about transfers of energy W Thermodynamics is the study of energy transfers W The first law of thermodynamics is conservation of energy Energy can neither be created nor destroyed “You can’t win.”
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights
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  • Fall '08
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  • Energy, Donald L. Siegel