burge_ch12_notes

burge_ch12_notes - ©2011 Donald L Siegel All Rights...

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Unformatted text preview: ©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Intemolecular Forces and the Physical Properties of Liquids and Solids ©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces W Why are liquids liquid? W Why is water a liquid at room temperature, while propane is a gas? W A first guess: size matters! 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 30 40 50 60 70 80 Mass BP-100-50 50 100 150 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Alcohols Alkanes Amines ©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved The forces The forces W Intramolecular forces hold a molecule together Bonds W Intermolecular forces are what attract one molecule to another Overcoming these forces cause phase changes W Types of forces Ion-ion forces – coulombic, very strong Dipole-dipole – coulombic, weaker Hydrogen bonding (see later) Hydrogen bonding (see later) London dispersive forces Induced dipole. Usually weak, but strength depends on Induced dipole. Usually weak, but strength depends on polarizability polarizability ©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen Bonding ©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved More on the Hydrogen Bond More on the Hydrogen Bond W The strength of a dipole-dipole interaction is proportional to q 1 q 2 /r 12 2 W Because hydrogen is so small, it can get closer to another polar atom than any other W To have a hydrogen bond, you need a donor and an acceptor Donor: polar H (H bonded to electronegative atom. H-X where X is O, N or sometimes Cl, S or Br) Acceptor: polar electronegative atom (O, N, F or sometimes S, Cl or Br) ©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Forces Forces ©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved The Liquid State The Liquid State W Surface tension Resistance to increasing surface area (beading) Increases as IMFs increase W Capillary action Combination of cohesion and adhesion W Viscosity Resistance to flow Increases with increasing IMF ©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights ©2011 Donald L....
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burge_ch12_notes - ©2011 Donald L Siegel All Rights...

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