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ch3_notes - Chapter 3 Quantum Theory and the Electronic...

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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Quantum Theory and the Electronic Structure of Atoms
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Basic Physics Basic Physics W Energy Types Kinetic energy Kinetic energy Potential Potential Types of potential energy Chemical Chemical Electrostatic Electrostatic Nuclear Nuclear W Coulomb’s Law q 1 q 2 /r 12 W Conservation of Energy
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Units of energy Units of energy W SI J = kg m 2 s -2 w = F x s = m x a x s = kg m/s 2 x m = N m W Biochemical (and organic chem) cal = amount of energy required to heat 1g of water by 1 K More common size is kcal (Cal in nutrition) W English BTU = British Thermal Unit Foot-pound
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved The Microscopic World The Microscopic World W In large scale (macroscopic) phenomena, what we see makes sense W A rock is always a rock W In the microscopic world, things get weird
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved A Brief History of Light and physics A Brief History of Light and physics W 1670s Isaac Newton studies “opticks” Light is a wave Different colors, different wavelengths (see later) W 1838 Faraday describes electricity and cathode rays W 1879-1890 Relationship between cathode rays, magentism W 1893 Thomson measures mass/charge ratio of cathode ray W 1905 Einstein explains photoelectric effect (see later)
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved More history More history W 1909 Millikan’s oil drop experiment Charge comes in discrete units Using Thomson’s data, measures mass of electron W 1909 Rutherford’s experiment disproves the “raisin pudding” model
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Characteristics of light Characteristics of light W Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation W A periodically oscillating electric field which induces an oscillating magnetic field W Characterized by a number of parameters frequency - ν -Hz ±(s -1 ) the amount of time it takes for 1 wavelength to pass a given spot. wavelength - λ - (m) the distance between corresponding points in the wave
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Characteristics of all waves Characteristics of all waves W c = f× λ If ripples on a pond are 1 cm from crest to crest and lap at the shore at the rate of 1 wave every 2 s, then the wave is travelling at a rate of 0.5 s -1 ×0.01m=5×10 -3 m/s High frequency short wavelength at any given speed W Speed of light In a vacuum c = 2.998×10 8 m/s In air c 1 × 10 8 m/s Has been measured at about 1 mph under very weird conditions W Color of light determined by frequency
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Examples of diffraction patterns Examples of diffraction patterns
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©2011 Donald L. Siegel, All Rights Reserved Blackbody Radiation Blackbody Radiation W Observation: A street gets hot in the sun and
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course 160 161 taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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ch3_notes - Chapter 3 Quantum Theory and the Electronic...

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