Chem 161-2011 Lecture 5, Chapter 3

Chem 161-2011 Lecture 5, Chapter 3 - CHEMISTRY 161-2011...

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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 5, Chapter 3 1 CHEMISTRY 161-2011 LECTURE 5 CHAPTER 3 QUANTUM THEORY AND THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL EXAMS
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 5, Chapter 3 2 PLAN FOR TODAY : Quantum mechanics The uncertainty principle The Schrodinger equation Quantum mechanical description of the hydrogen atom Quantum numbers Principal quantum number ( n ) Angular momentum quantum number ( l ) Magnetic quantum number ( m l ) Electron spin quantum number ( m s ) Atomic orbitals s orbitals p orbitals d orbitals and other higher-energy orbitals Energies of orbitals Electron configurations Energies of atomic orbitals in many-electron configurations Pauli Exclusion Principle Aufbau principle Hund’s rule General rules for writing electron configurations Paramagnetism Diamagnetism Electron configurations and the periodic table lanthanide series actinide series
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 5, Chapter 3 3 LIGHT AND MATTER ET: A wave is what you see when you drop a pebble in water. Describe light wave as electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic field, an electric field, and having a speed of 3 x 10 8 m/s. Draw undulating light curve to define λ , υ and amplitude. Relate light to graph on next page. ET: Discuss 3 equations from formula page and show that knowing one parameter gives the other two Wavelength = λ = distance/cycle = distance between corresponding points in the wave. Frequency = υ = cycles/s = cycles s -1 = s -1 = Hz = the amount of time it takes for 1 wavelength to pass a given spot. Amplitude = intensity, brightness, related to no. of photons emitted E photon = h υ ET: Use water waves to show relationship between high frequency and high energy; also use graph on next page. (E multiple photons = nh υ ) (E mole of photons = 6.022x10 23 h υ ) υλ = c light E photon = hc/ λ h = 6.626 x 10 -34 Js = 6.626 x 10 -34 kgm 2 s -2 s = 6.626 x 10 -34 kgm 2 s -1 c light = 3 x 10 8 m/s DeBroglie theorem: λ = h/mv ET: Wave-particle duality (wave: light refracts when going through a prism; diffracts, such as in an x-ray diffraction pattern; particle: behaves like bowling balls); tie into E = h υ m is the mass in kg v = velocity in meters per second Bohr atom: E = -B/n 2 Δ E = (-B/n f 2 ) – (-B/n i 2 ) = B((1/n i 2 ) - (1/n f 2 )) = -B((1/n f 2 ) - (1/n i 2 )) B = Bohr magneton = Rydberg constant = 2.179 x 10 -18 J Einstein’s photoelectric effect Total Energy = Energy threshold* + Energy kinetic Energy total = h υ threshold + h υ kinetic energy *Energy threshold = Work function
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 5, Chapter 3 4 Metal 2 aspects of the photoelectric effect (1) Conversion of light energy (“photo”) into electrical energy (electrons going through wires) (2) Light source - Quantum mechanics - Wave-particle duality Metal to provide incident light plug for electrical source Photoelectric material I presented on Tuesday that I’ve cleaned up, and will re- present if time permits. Students should replace the earlier material with this.
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 5, Chapter 3 5 CHAPTER 7 - LIGHT, ATOMIC STRUCTURE & PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS ET: Photoelectric effect is when light hits certain metals they emit electrons.
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 5, Chapter 3 - CHEMISTRY 161-2011...

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