Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6, Chapter 4

Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6, Chapter 4 - Chem 161-2011 Lecture...

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Unformatted text preview: Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6 1 CHEMISTRY 161-2011 LECTURE 6 CHAPTER 4 PERIODIC TRENDS OF THE ELEMENTS ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL EXAMS Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6 2 PLAN FOR TODAY : • Finish Aufbau, paramagnetism and diamagnetism from last week • Development of the periodic table • The modern periodic table Classification of elements Main group elements Valence electrons • Effective nuclear charge • Periodic trends in properties of elements Atomic radius Ionization energy • Electron affinity Metallic character • Electron configuration of ions Ions of main group elements Ions of d-block elements • Ionic radius Comparing ionic radius with atomic radius Isoelectronic series Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6 3 ET NOTE: STUDENTS SHOULD ADD PAGE 6 TO THE LECTURE 5 NOTES AUFBAU PRINCIPLE -- ORDER OF SUBSHELLS ET: “Aufbau” meams “building up” in German 1s 2 ( 2 He) 2s 2 2p 6 ( 10 Ne) 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 ( 18 Ar) 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 4f 14 ( 36 Kr) 5s 2 5p 6 5d 10 5f 14 ( 54 Xe) 6s 2 6p 6 6d 10 6 f 14 ( 86 Rn) 7s 2 7 p 6 7 d 10 7 f 14 ( 118 Uuo) 8s 2 8 p 6 8 d 10 8 f 14 COMPLETING FRIDAY’S LECTURE Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6 4 Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6 5 Similar to Hill & Petrucci problems 8-3,21,25,27,31 Made-up problem ET: Discuss Hund’s Rule: Electrons occupy subshell orbitals singly, with parallel spins, before doubly. (Electrons, especially unpaired electrons, repel each other.) Analogous to bus passengers preferring to sit singly, which gives each person maximum seat space. Only when all seats have one occupant do passengers begin to sit two to a seat, but in opposite directions. These rules provide the atoms with the lowest energy ground state electronic configurations. ET: Discuss Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two electrons in an atom may have all four quantum numbers alike. Therefore, there may be no more than two electrons in an orbital, and these electrons must have opposing spins. Two electrons with the same spins are high energy. Write the aufbau electron configuration of vanadium by the long way and short way (listing the Noble gas, in brackets, in place of the core electrons), and show the distribution of electrons in all shells. 23 V 23 electrons 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 3 or [Ar]4s 2 3d 3 3d ↓ ↓ ↓ 4s ↓↑ 3p ↓↑ ↓↑ ↓↑ 3s ↓↑ 2p ↓↑ ↓↑ ↓↑ 2s ↓↑ 1s ↓↑ Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6 6 CHEM 161-2002 HOURLY EXAM III + ANSWERS CHAPTER 7 - LIGHT, ATOMIC STRUCTURE & PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS ET: Exceptions ET: Filled and half-filled subshells are relatively stable; therefore, groups VIb and Ib will rearrange their electronic configuration to provide filled and/or half- filled subshells; e.g., Cr[Ar]4s 2 3d 4 → Cr[Ar]4s 1 3d 5 ; Cu[Ar]4s 2 3d 9 → Cu[Ar]4s 1 3d 10 ; also, Ag and Au....
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course 160 161 taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 6, Chapter 4 - Chem 161-2011 Lecture...

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