Chem 161-2011 lecture 8, Chapter 5

Chem 161-2011 lecture 8, Chapter 5 - Chem 161-2011 lecture...

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Unformatted text preview: Chem 161-2011 lecture 8 1 CHEMISTRY 161-2011 LECTURE 8 CHAPTER 5 IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUNDS ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL EXAMS Chem 161-2011 lecture 8 2 PLAN FOR TODAY : Compounds Lewis dot symbols Ionic compounds and bonding Chemical formula Lattice energy Naming ions and ionic compounds Formulas of ionic compounds Naming ionic compounds Covalent bonding and molecules Molecules Molecule Law of definite proportions Law of multiple proportions Diatomic molecule Homonuclear diatomic molecules Heteronuclear diatomic molecules Polyatomic molecules Molecular formulas Molecular formula Allotrope Structural formula Empirical formulas Naming molecular compounds Specifying numbers of atoms Compounds containing hydrogen Organic compounds Covalent bonding in ionic species Polyatomic ions Oxoanions Oxoacids Hydrates Familiar inorganic compounds Molecular and formula masses Percent composition of compounds Percent composition by mass Empirical formula mass Percent composition of compounds Molar mass Interconverting mass, moles and numbers of particles Determination of empirical formula and molecular formula from percent composition Chem 161-2011 lecture 8 3 Trivia: H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 and I 2 are the only diatomic molecules. Chem 161-2011 lecture 8 4 COMPOUND A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements combined in a specific ratio and held together by chemical bonds. U n i v e r s e energy ( has no mass; has capacity to do work ) matter (has mass [and occupies space]) e.g., light substance mixture (of substances) heat nuclear element compound homogeneous heterogeneous e.g., C, Al H 2 O sugar water, sand, granite alloys, clean air milk, smog Chem 161-2011 lecture 8 5 AUFBAU PRINCIPLE -- ORDER OF SUBSHELLS ET: Aufbau meams building up in German 1s 2 ( 2 He) 2s 2 2p 6 ( 10 Ne) 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 ( 18 Ar) 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 4f 14 ( 36 Kr) 5s 2 5p 6 5d 10 5f 14 ( 54 Xe) 6s 2 6p 6 6d 10 6 f 14 ( 86 Rn) 7s 2 7 p 6 7 d 10 7 f 14 ( 118 Uuo) 8s 2 8 p 6 8 d 10 8 f 14 Chem 161-2011 lecture 8 6 LEWIS THEORY OF CHEMICAL BONDING (not necessary to memorize as Lewis Theory) Valence electrons play a fundamental role in chemical bonding. When metals and nonmetals combine, valence electrons are transferred, forming ionic bonds, e.g., Na + Cl- , Mg 2+ Br- 2 . When nonmetals and nonmetals combine, valence electrons are shared, producing covalent bonds, e.g., NH 3 , CH 4 . ET: covalent means that the valence electrons are being shared, such as in co-author, or co-operate. When bonds form, atoms tend to acquire the electron configurations of noble gases, i.e., duets or octets; e.g., in CH 4 the Hs have duets of electrons, while the C has an octet....
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course 160 161 taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chem 161-2011 lecture 8, Chapter 5 - Chem 161-2011 lecture...

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