Chem 161-2011 Lecture 9, Chapter 6

Chem 161-2011 Lecture 9, Chapter 6 - CHEMISTRY 161-2011...

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Chem 161-2011 lecture 9 1 CHEMISTRY 161-2011 LECTURE 9 CHAPTER 6 REPRESENTING MOLECULES ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL EXAMS The first three exams, for sections 50-55, will be in Scott 123. The final exam will probably be in the College Ave. Gym, or the College Ave. Gym Annex. Please respond to upcoming request for priorities for review session.
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Chem 161-2011 lecture 9 2 PLAN FOR TODAY Finish chapter 5 Ionic and Covalent Compounds The octet rule Lewis structures Multiple bonds Electronegativity and polarity Electronegativity Dipole moment, partial charges, and percent ionic character Drawing Lewis structures Lewis structures and formal charge Resonance Exceptions to the octet rule Incomplete octets Odd numbers of electrons Expanded octets
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Chem 161-2011 lecture 9 3 Balance of lecture 8 Note especially oxoanions: ClO - hypochlorite (e.g., sodium hypochlorite) ClO 2 - chlorite ClO 3 - chlorate ClO 4 - perchlorate Also, PO 4 3- phosphate HPO 4 2- hydrogen phosphate H 2 PO 4 - dihydrogen phosphate (H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid) Note repeated patterns for related polyatomic anions Two related polyatomic anions _____ite _____ate Four related polyatomic anions hypo____ite ____ite ____ate per_____ate Hydrogen-containing polyatomic anions ____ate Hydrogen____ate Dihydrogen____ate
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Chem 161-2011 lecture 9 4 ET: A simple definition of an acid: An acid is a molecule that contains a transferable (i.e., an acidic) proton. ET: An oxyacid is an acid in which an acidic proton is bonded to an oxygen atom. ET: Most acids are oxyacids. Some Common Oxoacids (memorize) N a m e F o r m u l a Hypochlorous acid HClO Chlorous acid HClO 2 Chloric acid HClO 3 Perchloric acid HClO 4 Sulfurous acid H 2 SO 3 Sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 Nitrous acid HNO 2 Nitric acid HNO 3 Phosphorous acid H 3 PO 3 Phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 Carbonic acid H 2 CO 3 Note especially: Hypochlorous acid HClO Chlorous acid HClO 2 Chloric acid HClO 3 Perchloric acid HClO 4 and their F, Br and I analogs. Note: “ite” to “ous” and “ate” to “ic” Salts A c i d s ClO - hypochlorite HClO Hypochlorous acid ClO 2 - chlorite HClO2 Chlorous acid ClO 3 - chlorate HClO3 Chloric acid ClO 4 - perchlorate HClO4 Perchloric acid
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Chem 161-2011 lecture 9 5 COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HYDROGEN The names of molecular compounds containing hydrogen do not usually conform to the systematic guidelines. Traditionally, many of these compounds are called either by their common, nonsystematic names that do not indicate explicitly the number of H atoms present: Formula Common Name B 2 H 6 Diborane* SiH 4 Silane* NH 3 Ammonia PH 3 Phosphine H 2 O Water H 2 S Hydrogen sulfide *Less important according to Tavss
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Chem 161-2011 lecture 9 6 SOME COMMON NON-OXO ACIDS Formula Anhydrous name Aqueous name HF Hydrogen fluoride* Hydrofluoric acid HCl Hydrogen chloride* Hydrochloric acid HBr Hydrogen bromide* Hydrobromic acid HI Hydrogen iodide* Hydroiodic acid HCN Hydrogen cyanide* Hydrocyanic acid * Less important according to Tavss
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course 160 161 taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 9, Chapter 6 - CHEMISTRY 161-2011...

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