Chem 161-2011 Lecture 15, Chapter 9

Chem 161-2011 Lecture 15, Chapter 9 - CHEMISTRY 161-2011...

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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 15 1 CHEMISTRY 161-2011 LECTURE 15 CHAPTER 9 CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL EXAMS For sections 50-55, Wednesday, Nov. 2nd, 9:40-11:00 PM, SH 123 TAVSS’ SHORT-TERM SCHEDULE Tuesday, October 25th, Lecture 15, Continue on chapter 9 Friday, October 28th, Lecture 16, Finish chapter 9. In balance of time, review for exam II. Focus on Dr. Siegel’s recommended problems in 2010 exams I, II, III, final. Tuesday, Nov. 1st, No assigned lecture, Continue review for exam II. Focus on Dr. Siegel’s recommended problems in 2010 exams I, II, III, final. Wednesday, Nov. 2nd, Exam Friday, Nov. 4th, Finish chapter 9(?), begin chapter 10
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 15 2 HAPPY MOLE DAY!
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 15 3 PLAN FOR TODAY CHAPTER 9, CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS General properties of aqueous solutions Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes Precipitation reactions Solubility guidelines for ionic compounds in water Molecular equations Ionic equations Net ionic equations Acid-base reactions Strong acids and bases Brønsted acids and bases Acid-base neutralization Oxidation-reduction reactions Oxidation numbers Oxidation of metals in aqueous solutions Balancing simple redox equations Other types of redox reactions Combination reactions Decomposition Concentration of solutions Molarity Dilutuon Serial dilution Solution stoichiometry Aqueous reactions and chemical analysis Gravimetric analysis Acid-Base titrations
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 15 5 CHAPTER 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 15 6 PRECIPITATION REACTIONS (HEAVY METAL IONS FORMING PRECIPITATES) 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li + B e B C N O F Ne Na + Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si P S Cl - Ar K + Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br - Kr Rb + Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Te Ru Rh Pd Ag + ? Cd In Sn Sb Te I - Xe Cs + Ba 2+ La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg 2 2+ Tl Pb 2+ Bi Po At - Rn Gen Gen NH 4 + ClO 4 - CH 3 CO 2 - NO 3 - ClO 3 - S 2- OH - O 2- CO 3 2- PO 4 3- CrO 4 2- Overview: The yellow and mustard colors tend to be soluble. The blue and royal blue colors tend to be insoluble. Note that single charged ions tend to be soluble and multiple charged ions tend to be insoluble. SO 4 2- IO 3 - IO 4 -
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 7 HYDRATION OF SALTS Water molecules surround each anion with their partial positive charges (H atoms) oriented toward the negatively charged anion; and they surround each cation with their partial negative charges (O atoms) oriented toward the positively charged cation.
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Chem 161-2010 Lecture 15 8 SALT PRECIPITATION REACTIONS Insoluble in H 2 O means ~<0.01M = ~<0.3% Soluble: All group IA metal ions and NH 4 + Soluble: All nitrates (NO 3 - ), acetates (CH 3 CO 2 - ), chlorates (ClO 3 - ) and perchlorates (ClO 4 - ) Generally insoluble: Ag + , Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , Ba 2+ Soluble: All Cl - , Br - , I - * (except Ag + , Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ ) *Note absence of F - Soluble: All SO 4 2- (except Ag + , Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , Ba 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ca 2+ ) Soluble: (All IO 3 - and IO 4 - (except Pb 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , Ba 2+ )) Insoluble: Hydroxides (OH - ) (except Group I & II hydroxides) Insoluble: Sulfides (S 2- ) Insoluble: Carbonates (CO 3 2- ) Insoluble: Phosphates (PO 4 3- ) Insoluble: Chromates (CrO 4
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 15, Chapter 9 - CHEMISTRY 161-2011...

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