Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19, Chapter 11

Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19, Chapter 11 - CHEMISTRY 161-2011...

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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19 1 CHEMISTRY 161-2011 LECTURE 19 CHAPTER 11 GASES ANNOUNCEMENTS E-MAIL EXAMS Exam III, Wed, 11/30, Chapters 8.3 (8.4?) – 10.8 Exam immediately after holiday return. Uh oh!!! MISCELLANEOUS Fri, 11/18, continuation of chapter 11 Next week no class Tue or Fri. Tue, 11/22 replaced by Thu class Fri, 11/25 Thanksgiving recess Tue, 11/29 review for exam III in place of lecture Wed, 11/30 Exam III
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19 2 Today’s topics Chapter 11 Properties of Gases The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Molecular Speed Diffusion and Effusion Gas Pressure Definition and Units of Pressure Calculation of Pressure Measurement of Pressure The Gas Laws Boyle’s Law: The Pressure-Volume Relationship Charle’s and Gay-Lussac’s Law: The Temperature-Volume Relationship Avogadro’s Law: The Amount-Volume Relationship The Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory The Combined Gas Law: The Pressure-Temperature-Amount-Volume Relationship The Ideal Gas Equation Applications of the Ideal Gas Equation Real Gases Factors that Cause Deviation from Ideal Behavior The van der Waals Equation van der Waals Constants Gas Mixtures Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures Reactions with Gaseous Reactants and Products Calculating the Required Volume of a Gaseous Reactant Determining the Amount of Reactant Consumed Using Change in Pressure Using Partial Pressures to Solve Problems
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19 3 CHAPTER 11 - GASES IMPORTANT GAS FORMULAS (KE) avg = (3/2)RT Use SI units: KE = J; R = 8.314J/(Kmol); T = K Root mean square velocity = μ RMS = (3RT/MW) Use SI units: R = 8.314J/(Kmol); MW = kg/mol Effusion rate: Rate 1 /Rate 2 = (MW 2 /MW 1 ) Effusion time: Time 1 /Time 2 = (MW 1 /MW 2 ) Avogadro’s Law: n 1 /n 2 = V 1 /V 2 (P and T are constant) Boyle’s Law: P 2 /P 1 = V 1 /V 2 (n and T are constant) Charles’s Law: T 1 /T 2 = V 1 /V 2 (n and P are constant) Pressure: Pressure = force/area Pressure = gravity x density x height 1 mm = 1 Torr 1 atm = 760 mm = 14.696 lb/in 2 Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT PV = (g/MW)RT P = (g/VMW)RT D = g/L = g/V P = (D/MW)RT Combination Gas Law : P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 Also, (P 1 V 1 MW 1 )/(g 1 T 1 ) = (P 2 V 2 MW 2 )/(g 2 T 2 ) Also, (P 1 MW 1 )/(D 1 T 1 ) = (P 2 MW 2 )/(D 2 T 2 ) If any variables are constant, a new equation is derived. e.g., at constant P and T P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2 , which is Avogadro’s law e.g., at constant T and V P 1 V 1 /n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 /n 2 T 2 P 1 /n 1 = P 2 /n 2 ; n 1 /n 2 = P 1 /P 2 ; n 1 /n T = P 1 /P T , which is Dalton’s law Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures : P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + . . . = P T
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19 4 Solvate Solid – definite shape Liquid – fluid, adopts the shape of the container that holds it, incompressible Gas – fluid, fills the entire container, large distance between particles; compressible Other rarer states: Plasma – sea of ions and electrons, found in stars States of Substances
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19 5
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19 6 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19 7 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Kinetic = motion; molecular = molecules; therefore, movement of the molecules (for ideal gases only) Provides a picture of how gas molecules/atoms move (1)
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Chem 161-2011 Lecture 19, Chapter 11 - CHEMISTRY 161-2011...

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