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Chapter1_Fall11

Chapter1_Fall11 - What is the boiling temperature of water...

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1 Chemistry is the study of matter, the changes that matter undergoes and the energy associated with these changes. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space, the stuff of the universe: books, planets, trees, professor, students. What is the color of the element with atomic symbol Au? A. Red B. Blue C. Gold D. Purple E. All of the above © 2011 Darrin M. York, All Rights Reserved What is the boiling temperature of water? A. 25 °C B. 100 °F C. 100 °C D. 300 K E. All of the above © 2011 Darrin M. York, All Rights Reserved What substance is colorless, odorless, tasteless, dissolves instantly in liquid and is among the most deadly poisons known to men? A. Hydrogen cyanide B. Methanol C. H 2 O D. Iocane powder E. None of the above © 2011 Darrin M. York, All Rights Reserved Chemistry: The Science of Change 1 1.1 The Scientific Method 1.2 Classification of Matter 1.3 Properties of Matter 1.4 Scientific Measurement 1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement 1.6 Units Conversion © 2011 Darrin M. York, All Rights Reserved
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2 Scientific Method The scientific method is the way that scientists learn about the natural world, and are able to explain it through the use of chemical and physical models. © 2011 Darrin M. York, All Rights Reserved Observations: Natural phenomena and measured events; universally consistent ones can be stated as a natural law. Hypothesis: Tentative proposal that explains observations. Experiment: Procedure to test hypothesis; measures one variable at a time. Model (Theory): Set of conceptual assumptions that explains data from accumulated experiments; predicts related phenomena. Further Experiment: Tests predictions based on model. revised if experiments do not support it altered if predictions do not support it © 2011 Darrin M. York, All Rights Reserved Other terms in Science Models A simplified way to represent a phenomena Law A concise verbal or mathematical statement of a reliable relationship between phenomena Theory A unifying principle that explains a body of experimental observations and the laws that are based on them © 2011 Darrin M. York, All Rights Reserved Classification of matter Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. We can classify matter based on its state (solid, liquid or gas) and its composition (pure substance or mixture). Matter Pure Substances Mixtures Homo- geneous Hetero- geneous Matter Solid Liquid Gas © 2011 Darrin M. York, All Rights Reserved Classification of matter by state Solid: particles are packed close to each other in fixed locations. Solids retain their shape, are fairly incompressible. Liquid : particles are packed close to each other but are not in fixed locations. Liquids also are fairly incompressible, but can flow and take the shape of a container (but not necessarily fill it).
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