Chapter11_Fall11

Chapter11_Fall11 - 11 Gases 11.1 Properties of Gases 11.2...

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Gases 11 11.1 Properties of Gases 11.2 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 11.3 Gas Pressure 11.4 The Gas Laws 11.5 The Ideal Gas Equation 11.6 Real Gases 11.7 Gas Mixtures 11.6 Reactions with Gaseous Reactants and Products Properties of Gases Gases differ from solids and liquids in the following ways: A sample of gas assumes both the shape and volume of the container. Gases are compressible. The densities of gases are much smaller than those of liquids and solids and are highly variable depending on temperature and pressure. Gases form homogeneous mixtures (solutions) with one another in any proportion. The Kinetic Molecular Theory The kinetic molecular theory explains how the molecular nature of gases gives rise to their macroscopic properties. The basic assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory are as follows: A gas is composed of particles that are separated by large distances. The volume occupied by individual molecules is negligible. Gas molecules are constantly in random motion, moving in straight paths, colliding with perfectly elastic collisions. Gas molecules do not exert attractive or repulsive forces on one another. The average kinetic energy of a gas molecules in a sample is proportional to the absolute temperature:
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