Chapter11_Fall11

Chapter11_Fall11 - Gases 11 11.1 Properties of Gases 11.2...

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Unformatted text preview: Gases 11 11.1 Properties of Gases 11.2 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 11.3 Gas Pressure 11.4 The Gas Laws 11.5 The Ideal Gas Equation 11.6 Real Gases 11.7 Gas Mixtures 11.6 Reactions with Gaseous Reactants and Products Properties of Gases Gases differ from solids and liquids in the following ways: A sample of gas assumes both the shape and volume of the container. Gases are compressible. The densities of gases are much smaller than those of liquids and solids and are highly variable depending on temperature and pressure. Gases form homogeneous mixtures (solutions) with one another in any proportion. The Kinetic Molecular Theory The kinetic molecular theory explains how the molecular nature of gases gives rise to their macroscopic properties. The basic assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory are as follows: A gas is composed of particles that are separated by large distances. The volume occupied by individual molecules is negligible. Gas molecules are constantly in random motion, moving in straight paths, colliding with perfectly elastic collisions. Gas molecules do not exert attractive or repulsive forces on one another. The average kinetic energy of a gas molecules in a sample is proportional to the absolute temperature: The Kinetic Molecular Theory Decreasing volume increases the frequency of collisions. Pressure increases as collision frequency increases. Heating a sample of gas increases its average kinetic energy. Gas molecules must move faster. Faster molecules collide more frequently and at a greater speed. Pressure increases as collision frequency increases. Gases are compressible because molecules in the gas phase are separated by large distances. Pressure is the result of the collisions of gas molecules with the walls of their container. The Kinetic Molecular Theory The total kinetic energy of a mole of gas is equal to . The average kinetic energy of one molecule is m is the mass, is the mean square speed. For one mole of gas: = A The Kinetic Molecular Theory The root-mean-square (rms) speed (u rms ) is the speed of a molecule with the average kinetic energy in a gas sample. u rms is directly proportional to temperature u rms is inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass. The Kinetic Molecular Theory When two gases are at the same temperature, it is possible to compare the the u rms values of the different gases. The Kinetic Molecular Theory Diffusion is the mixing of gases as the result of random motion and frequent collisions. Effusion is the escape of gas molecules from a container to a region of vacuum....
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course 160 161 taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter11_Fall11 - Gases 11 11.1 Properties of Gases 11.2...

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