unit 2 rhetoric

unit 2 rhetoric - “Rhetorical” Theories...

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Unformatted text preview: “Rhetorical” Theories “Rhetorical” o o o o • Rhetorical Theory: General Oldest area of communication theory Rhetoric: • Refers to the use of available means of persuasion, typically involving language involving • Has both positive and negative connotations Rhetorical Theories: • Wide range of models and devices used to: o Improve one’s rhetoric o Study/understand the use of rhetoric by others Mainly falls in interpretive paradigm • Aristotle’s The Rhetoric Aristotle’s The o Key Assumptions: • Communicators must consider audience • Communicators must use a number of “proofs” o Three artistic proofs: • Logos: focused on content; logic/evidence/ rationality • Pathos: emotional appeal • Ethos: character of the speaker (trust, moral character, goodwill, qualifications, etc.) qualifications, • Aristotle’s Syllogisms & Enthymemes Aristotle’s o Syllogism: Deductive 3-part argument Syllogism: • Major premise: (Ex: Politicians are deceitful) • Minor premise: (Ex: Governor Z is a politician) • Conclusion: (Ex: Governor Z is deceitful) o o Enthymeme: Syllogism whose function is rhetorical persuasion (Bitzer) • Audience fills in missing premise or conclusion • Audience is more persuaded when they can participate in this way • Canons of Rhetoric o 5 characteristics of effective communication • Invention: Discovery of appropriate ideas/topics o Deliberative, forensic, and epideictic speech genres • Arrangement: structure/organization • Style: Use of speech devices to better persuade o Metaphor, simile, poetry, etc. • Delivery: voice, body, other nonverbals, etc. • Memory: strategies to help audience remember o o o • Fisher’s Narrative Theory Described as both a theory and paradigm Sees stories and storytelling as natural and universal • Communicative accounts with beginning, middle, end, and characters • We tell stories and what we hear are stories Fisher believes that all forms of communication can be analyzed as stories Fisher all • Others challenge this broad claim • Narrative Theory: Evaluation o The “goodness” of a story can be judged in terms of two criteria: Narrative coherence considers the integrity of a story’s structure o Does it hang together well and make sense? Do we find key element and needed details? Do people behave as we might element expect them to? expect Narrative fidelity considers whether the story “rings true” with the beliefs of listeners of o Does it seem consistent/compatible with other stories? Does it fit with personal experience? Does it ascribe to the it highest values? highest o o o o • Kenneth Burke’s Rhetoric Burke’s work is wide-ranging and influential in rhetoric & communication Sees humans as symbol-using animals who act as agents in the world Sees symbol-using agents View of life as a drama Three main areas: • Identification and substance • Guilt and redemption • Pentad • Identification and Substance o Addresses division in world by appealing to common substance by process of Addresses division substance consubstantiation to create identification consubstantiation identification • Identification: sense of oneness; shared fate; defining oneself in terms of something or someone else terms o Cheney notes several rhetorical strategies in Burke’s work to create identification: identification: o Common ground o Transcendent “we” o Uniting against a shared enemy o o o o • Guilt and Redemption Guilt: negative processes that alienate us • Pervasive part of human condition made apparent by hierarchy Attempt to purge guilt is victimization: • Mortification: self/internal • Scapegoating: other/external Redemption is felt after guilt is purged …but this is an ongoing cycle • Burke’s Pentad o Model for understanding how we behave and talk about that behavior: • Act: what is done by person • Scene: historical and current context • Agent: person(s) performing act • Purpose: Goal of act • Agency: Means or methods to perform act o Relative use of various aspects of pentad are referred to as “ratios” • Can help in understanding and evaluating communication strategies used strategies ...
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