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GuestLecture_Xie - Distributed and Renewable Energy...

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Distributed and Renewable Energy Resources Guest Lecture: Dr. Le Xie Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Texas A&M University September 29, 2011 1
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Outline Why Renewable Centralized V.S. Distributed Generation Basic Facts/Premises about Renewable Operational Challenges due to Renewable 2
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U.S. Energy Flow “Spaghetti” Chart 3
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Motivation for More Distributed, Renewable Energy Resources Energy Security Economic Security Environmental Concerns 4
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5 Central Station Vs. Distributed Generation Economies of scale in central station coal or nuclear generation: Basic plant cost, turbines, operators Single plant: less than 1,000 MW Single site: 3,000 MW? DG: No transmission, greater reliability, combined heat & power Efficiency: 100%? Vs. 35$% Fuel costs: Coal vs. natural gas or diesel
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6 Transmission Costs At $2-8 million/mile, transmission has high capital costs & adds to delivered cost Line losses 2% trans. 8% distribution Super critical coal plant: $2800/kw Capital: 4.8 ¢/kWh, fuel & O&M: 3 ¢/KWh Total generation: 7.8 ¢/KWh New transmission adds 0.3-8 ¢/KWh Total delivered: 8.1- 15.8 ¢ / KWh
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7 Natural Gas with CHP Capital cost: $600/KW, 35% efficient => 9750 BTU/KWh (6,000 h/yr) Natural gas: $10/MMBTU => 9.5 ¢/KWh Total cost: 11.5 ¢/KWh If 100% of energy used, 35% for elec. & 65% for heat, if elec. worth 10 ¢/kWh, get 102.5 KWh for 1 MM BTU: value $10.25 + 6.5 = $16.75. Cost $10 + 2.04 = $12.04 Cogen adds $4.71 /MCF gas Breakeven = 27.5% of waste heat used. MMBTU: 1 Million British Thermal Unit MCF: Thousand Cubic Feet
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8 Topology of the electrical systems Centralized: Distributed: C PG1 PG10 Transmission System Distribution System Load: ~10 MW Peak 271 Other Loads Area Grid T10 A B PG5 T9 T1 D272 C Load: ~10 MW Peak D273 Distribution System Load: ~10 MW Peak 271 Other Loads Area Grid DG Load: ~10 MW Peak DG B C C D272 D273 A simple "typical" topology has also been modeled for the natural gas system. Details of the modeling assumptions can be found in Hisham Zerriffi, Hadi Dowlatabadi, and Alex Farrell, "Incorporating Stress in Electric Power System Reliability Models," Proceedings of the IEEE , in review for a special issue.
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