Notes - Module 18 - 20

Notes Module 18- - Theories of Learning I Pavlov-Classical Conditioning(1849-1936 A Involves the study of reflexes natural biological reactions to

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Theories of Learning I. Pavlov-- Classical Conditioning (1849-1936) A. Involves the study of reflexes - natural biological reactions to a stimulus B. Definition of terms: 1. UCS = A naturally occurring stimulus which causes a natural response in the organism 2. UR = The natural reflex action to a UCS 3. CS = A stimulus which may or may not elicit a reflex or response, is conditioned to produce the same reflex at the UCS 4. CR = Newly learned response to the CS C. Learning 1. Begins with acquisition of response to repeated reinforcement 2. Extinction = When CS is given alone w/o UCS response gradually disappears 3. Spontaneous recovery = later after elapsed time w/o reinforcement of US(UCS) the response returns (Basketball skill retained after absence) 4. Pavlov thought CS & US overlapped in time in the brain. He tried to vary the time between the UCS & CS, with the CS given before the UCS 5. Backward conditioning- The CS does not begin to act until after the cessation of the UCS D. Higher Order Conditioning- a well learned CS is used to reinforce learning with another neutral stimulus, making a new or second CS II. Watson & Skinner - Behaviorism and Operant Learning A. Watson -learning is by association (CER- conditioned emotional responses)
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Stimulus Generalization - response broadened to other areas or to other stimuli 2. Stimulus Discrimination- Learning to respond to only one S and inhibits the response to all other stimuli. 3. Response Discrimination - Giving a response that is somewhat different from the response to all other stimuli. 4. Everything is externally measurable, we are naturally rewarded by the correct behavior. B. Skinner -- Operant Conditioning 1. Two classes of responses a. Elicited responses- classified as a respondent, such as knee jerk or pupil constriction, related to known or specific stimuli, A REFLEX action as in classical conditioning b. Emitted responses - called operants , not correlated with any known stimuli, measured by the rate of response because it cannot be linked to a reflex. 2. An operant acquires a relation to prior stimulation, it becomes then a discriminate operant. 3. Reinforcement is contingent upon a response , if the occurrence of an operant is followed by presentation of a reinforcing stimuli, the strength and /or probability of the response is increased (definition of a reinforcer) C. Extinction - Is unconditioning for Skinner 1. measured by rate of responding and total number of responses D. Single reinforcements - (rate gets food in one press) E. Superstitious behavior - Any behavior that is rewarded will result in learning of that behavior and belief that the behavior was the stimulus to be reinforced even if it was accidental. The reward results in learning.
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2012 for the course PSY 100 taught by Professor Farthing during the Winter '08 term at University of Maine Orono .

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Notes Module 18- - Theories of Learning I Pavlov-Classical Conditioning(1849-1936 A Involves the study of reflexes natural biological reactions to

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