Notes - Modules 3 and 4

Notes - Modules 3 and 4 - The Biology of Behavior 1. The...

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The Biology of Behavior 1. The Nervous System - comprised of the following subsystems which control all activity in our body. 1. Central Nervous System 1. Brain 2. Spinal Cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System - connections to muscles and organs of the body. 1. Somatic or Skeletal - controls our voluntary muscles. 2. Autonomic - Controls autonomic functions that we have no voluntary control over such as breathing, heart rate etc. 1. Sympathetic - Responds to stress or demands put upon the body. 2. Parasympathetic - Work in opposition to the sympathetic NS to return body to homeostasis. 2. How the System works and interacts 1. Neurons - Over 200 billion in our body. 1. Sensory , Motor and Interneurons 2. Historical Notes 1. Glavani: 1700's first demonstrated neural conductivity with use of frog legs, first concept of electrical conduction 2. Volta: Explained process as electrical conductance 3. Golgi: Developed a staining method that allowed entire neurons to viewed and studied 3. No two neurons are the same, over 200 billion cells in brain 4. Main components of the neuron 1. Cell body or Soma (Greek word for body) 1. Spherical or pyramidal in shape, contains the nucleus 2. Synthesizes enzymes for cell function, neurotransmitters and other nutrients 2. Dendrites 1. Branch from cell body, receive signals only , transfer them to the cell body 2. Receive this signal from other neurons or the environment 3. Axon 1. Extends from the cell body to other neurons in the brain
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2. Longer and thinner than dendrites 3. Covered with Myelin Sheath 4. Glial Cells used for support 5. Neurilemma is the covering of axons which are outside the brain and spinal cord 6. Every mm or so is interrupted by a Node of Ranvier. These server to insulate and speed conductance Impulses pass from neuron to neuron but the cells never touch 4. Synapse 1. Site where information is passed from one neuron to another 2. The enlargement at the end of the axon is called the Terminal Button and extends into the synaptic cleft of the next dendrite 3. The button contains synaptic vesicles which contain the neurotransmitters that are eventually released to continue conductance of the impulse across the synaptic cleft 4. The release of the neurotransmitters that find and lock into a specific binding site on the dendrite of the neighboring neruon. This elicits an action potential in the dendrite and the process continues on from cell to cell 5. Neurotransmitters tend to be either excitatory or inhibitory in nature
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5. Neurotransmitters 1. Over 50 identified, may recognize some such as acetylcholine, epinephrine, dopamine and serotonin 2. Transmitter secretion or re-uptake may be affected by drugs or environmental chemicals 3. Other chemicals act to mimic ( agonistic) or block ( antagonistic ) the effect of neurotransmitters. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2012 for the course PSY 100 taught by Professor Farthing during the Winter '08 term at University of Maine Orono .

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Notes - Modules 3 and 4 - The Biology of Behavior 1. The...

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