Notes - Modules 5, 6, & 7

Notes - Modules 5, 6, & 7 - Nature and Nurture of...

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Nature and Nurture of Behavior What are the issues in Development? Nature/Nurture - what accounts for the changes? Are our inherited traits due to DNA in our genes or the experiences and interaction in our environment? Continuity/Discontinuity - Is development gradual and continuous from start to finish, or is it discontinuous with abrupt changes like a caterpillar to a butterfly? Stability/Change - Is our personality set at an early age or do we change at each stage of development or over the years? 1. Genetics 1. Genes : Our Biological Blueprint 2. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 1. a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes 2. has two strands-forming a "double helix"- held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides 3. Biochemical units of heredity that make up Chromosomes 1. threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes 2. segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein 1. Fraternal twin - two ovum, Identical Twins - one ovum 2. Only identical twins have similar genetic content 3. Inside sperm or ovum are 23 chromosomes , each with thousands of genes. The genes are composed of DNA. 4. After fertilization there is a total of 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes in the developing zygote. 4. Genotype (DNA) and Phenotype (Physical Appearance) 1. Genome 1. the complete instructions for making an organism 2. Genes contain the instructions for various traits 1. Phenotypes are the observable physical traits 2. Genotypes are the genetic patterns carried within the cells
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3. Important because effect health of children (overhead of eye color), the parent may be carrier such as sickle cell anemia, or PKU (phenylketonuria which is genetic and can contribute to retardation. Put on diet low in phenylalanine. 5. Prenatal Development 1. Begins with fertilization - meeting of sperm & ovum, 2 weeks differentiate cells called an embryo. 2. Three months called a fetus , as resembles a human infant 3. Effects of Heredity and Environment 1. Role of genetic inheritance on development of children's abilities is known but it does act alone. 2. Originally psychologists thought it was a strong effect of achievement and others factors, today it is not believed as strongly, they feel a combination of heredity and environment 4. Environmental factors 1. Drugs such as ETOH and some viruses pass through placenta to fetus.
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