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Notes - Modules 11 & 13

Notes - Modules 11 & 13 - Sensory and Perceptual...

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Sensory and Perceptual Processes 1. Sensation : The process of receiving stimuli or information. 1. We receive this stimuli through our sense organs, the five senses 2. Sensory Receptor Cells - receive the stimuli from the environment and through transduction transfer it to nerve impulses to be processed in the brain. 2. Perception : The process of evaluating information and giving it meaning. 1. We perceive using our cerebral cortex organizing information received from our 5 senses (Sensory Receptors) 2. They are not always accurate - as in the example of an optical illusion 3. Gestalts-meaning 'whole' or 'form' 1. Figure/Ground (example -- The Chalice/Faces) 2. What we see is the results of the eye and the mind working together 3. Visual perception is based on a hierarchy; it includes elements of personal meaning, intensity, our habits, symbolic content, and assumptions we make 3. Concepts that explain experience of Perception 1. Threshold - how much of a stimulus is necessary for a person to sense a stimuli at all is present. 1. Absolute Threshold - the smallest amount of energy that will produce a sensation half (50%) of the time. 2. Difference Threshold or Just Noticeable Difference (JND) - Is the smallest change in sensation that will produce a noticeable change in sensation, it is defined as the difference between 2 stimuli that can be detected half the time in trials with subjects 3. Weber's Law - the larger or stronger the original stimulus, the larger the change required to notice that any thing has changed. Usually follows a proportional change of about 5% for the stimulus 4. Electromagnetic Radiation 1. Light - Enables vision, light is in the form of a wave of energy
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2. Light has 2 characteristics - wavelength (frequency) and amplitude (intensity). 1. Wavelength (Hue or Color) is measured in nanometers )1/1,000,000,000 of mm) (one billionith) 2. We see only 1/64 of all available frequencies or colors. 3. Light containing all wavelengths detectable by the eye we call white light . 5. The Spectrum of all wavelengths of electromagnetic energy : | Gamma | X Ray | UV | Visible Light | Infrared | Microwaves | Radar | Radio | UHF | Broadcasts 1. The Eye 1. Cornea - clear covering, (close eye & feel as move eye, look at a neighbors from the side) 2. Sclera - the whites of their eyes 3. Iris - A sphincter muscle 1. Controls pupil size 2. Colored by melanin (a pigment) it is influenced by heredity and tends to respond to emotions. 4. Pupil - the opening, not really a structure or tissue but the opening in the Iris. You may see changes in the Iris with a beam of light that constricts the pupil 5. Lens and Ciliary Muscle - provides focus of the image on the retina 1. The Lens changes shape to focus light, a convex bulge to focus close 2. The Lens flattens concavely to focus on distant objects 6. Nearsighted (Myopic) - Due to shape of eyeball, it is a longer distance between lens and retina than in a normal eye, light converges in front of retina 7. Farsighted (Amblyopia)
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Notes - Modules 11 & 13 - Sensory and Perceptual...

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