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Notes - Modules 15 & 16

Notes - Modules 15 & 16 - States of Consciousness 1...

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States of Consciousness 1. The Nature of Consciousness 1. Consciousness - "A state of awareness" or "an awareness of one's own mental processes" 2. An altered state of consciousness is the experience which is different than when we are alert and awake. B. Subconscious - below level of awareness C. Unconscious - autonomic, never aware of it, we may attempt to control with biofeedback. 1. Directed Consciousness - "awareness toward a single focus" 2. Flowing Consciousness - "Drifting or unfocused consciousness" 3. Divided Consciousness - "splitting of two conscious activities that occur simultaneously" 2. Brain Functions 1. EEG Brain Waves 1. Alpha : 8 - 12/sec., found in relaxed state, used during Biofeedback training. 2. Beta : 13 -14/sec., dominates when mentally aroused. 3. Theta: 4 - 8/sec., increase with drowsiness, slipping off to sleep. 4. Delta : at lowest mental arousal, dreamless state of sleep. 3. Sleep 1. Pre-sleep or " hypnagogic state " at this threshold of sleep we first begin to drift off to sleep, if we held a pencil it may drop. Body activity begins to drop off, often alpha waves appear causing that sudden jerk called "Myoclonia", from here we begin to enter stage 1. 2. NRem Sleep - Stage 1 1. 1 - 7 minutes. You lose awareness of surroundings. If aroused form this state, you subjectively feel you were awake. Theta waves are present. 3. NRem Stage 2: 1. Person is asleep, thoughts are fragmented, the EEG shows a burst of brain activity measured by " Spindles " and peaks called "K complexes"
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2. Eyes may roll side by side or be still, not REM. This stage lasts 5- 10 minutes. 4. NRem Delta Sleep., Stage 3 and 4 1. After 30 minute, Stage 4 DEEP sleep. Delta - Deepest and hardest to waken. 2. It is the point where it is most difficult to wake you. 3. After a few minutes to an hour in Delta, may return to stage 2. 4. REM period. 1. Dreaming occurs in REM. 2. 1st REM about 10 minutes, and cycle begins at stage 2 again. 3. Repeats itself about every 90 min. 4. Little danger from interrupting REM Sleep, will usually see REM rebound later if one has inadequate sleep. (Increased REM) 5. Sleep and Sleep Disorders 1. Average need for sleep is 71/2 hours. 95% of people sleep 61/2 to 81/2 hours. 2. Little effect between people and length of sleep they receive. 3. Insomnia 1. Sleep usually occurs 15 - 30 minutes after falling asleep involves Reticular Formation and changes in body temperature, and secretion of body chemicals. 2. Specific chemicals neurotransmitters present during onset, sleep and awakening, (serotonin, adrenalin) 3. Caused by anxiety, illness or change in circadian rhythm. 4. Drugs interfere with neurotransmitters in blood, i.e. barbiturates reduce REM sleep periods.
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