Notes - Modules 21 & 22

Notes - Modules 21 & 22 - Memory 1 Processes of...

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Memory 1. Processes of Memory 1. Information Processing (IP) Model 2. Process of receiving , encoding , storing , and recalling data (use analogy, i.e. computers) 3. Encoding- way information is put into memory system. Sensory stimuli from environment is represented in a perceptive form, i.e., sound, visual image, meaning, etc. 4. Encoding- takes places in different stages of memory, if recorded some info may be lost. 5. Example of information processing: Computers vs Humans Computer: Environment--> input disks, cards, etc--> software recodes, manipulates--> Output LCD or printer, etc. Human: Environment--> sensory input-->emotion, neural recoding--> output verbal, nonverbal etc. 1. Sensory Memory 1. George Sperling (1960) Subjects recalled specific stimulus from visual matrix when cued to do so after a short period of time. 2. Sperling's research indicates the presence of a visual sensory memory 3. Attention - selection of some incoming information for further processing. 1. Attention is based upon the meaning it has to us 2. Cocktail Party Phenomenon- ability to hear our name out of a room full of conversations taking place. 4. Information enters through one of sense organs, along with much other data, info is lost here very quickly in about 250ms. 5. Unlimited information may be stored here, but only temporarily. 6. Information is selected by what we call attention to - chosen from of all the sensory input given to our senses. 2. Short Term Store or Memory
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1. STM Capacity is about 7 plus or minus 2 chunks or Unrelated items , true for any kind of item. Or more accurately, what can be held or rehearsed for 20-30 seconds. 2. It can hold a limited amount of data-- about a phone number. 3. Information may enter a rehearsal buffer where it may be kept "active", information is repeated over and over. 4. This limitation of its capacity is overcome by chunking or clustering (grouping), i.e. remembering a social security number in chunks rather than 9 independent digits 3. Long Term Memory- Large capacity, many years of memories stored in our brains 1. Types of LTM 1. Explicit or Declarative Memory 1. Semantic Memory - facts and general knowledge 2. Episodic Memory - Personally experience events 2. Implicit or Nondeclarative Memory 1. Procedural Memory - skills learned through practice (playing basketball) and cognitive skills
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Notes - Modules 21 & 22 - Memory 1 Processes of...

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