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Notes - Modules 26, 29 - 30

Notes - Modules 26, 29 - 30 - Motivation Emotion 1...

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1. Motivation and Emotion 1. Motive - "Inner directing force, need or want, that arouses organism and directs behavior toward a goal" 2. Emotion - "Positive or negative feelings generally in reaction to stimuli that are accompanied by physiological arousal and related behavior. A feeling such as fear, joy or anger that energizes and directs behavior". Involves physiological arousal, expressive behaviors and conscious experience. 2. Perspectives on Motivation 1. Early theory focused on Instinct 1. A biological force that predisposes one to behave in certain way, innate and rigidly patterned throughout the species. 2. William James supported idea that human behavior could be explained by such instincts 3. Freud - sexual energy, death instinct, aggression 2. Drive Reduction Theory - based on idea that bodily needs produce a state of tension which the body strives to reduce. 1. Need - food, water, oxygen etc., 2. This causes a state of tension, or a Drive 3. Activates a Response or motivated behavior to reduce tension 4. Meeting the need restores Homeostasis : All drives or motives are important for maintaining Homeostasis; returning the bodily mechanism to balance. 3. Needs 1. Cognitive Needs or Non-tissue needs - No physical basis for sustaining the need. 2. Stimulus Motivation (curiosity, need for change) 3. Learned needs - Learned by association, e.g. . learn the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers
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4. Intrinsic Motivation : Natural motivation, no external reward. Curiosity & Activity (plays piano because loves to do so) 5. Extrinsic Motivation : From obvious external factors, "rewards" (auto rebates) 6. Incentive - The external stimulus that prompts goal directed behavior. It has "attractiveness" to encourage us to seek the goal; "an external cue that activates motivation" 3. Arousal Theory - There is an ideal level of arousal for various activities 1. Inverted U concept - A moderate amount of arousal is desirable for optimal performance. 2. Performance depends on the task: Yerkes - Dodson Law 1. Simple - Optimal level will be high arousal 2. Complex - Optimal level will be low arousal 4. Primary Drives - are physiologically based 1. Hunger 1. Physiological Mechanisms 1. Because stomach growls, thought empty stomach caused stomach pains 2. Cannon & Washburn (1912): Washburn swallowed balloon to see if contractions caused stomach pains. They originally thought these to be the cause of hunger. 3. We find those with stomachs removed still have hunger pains. Clues come from stomach, intestines and hormones. 4. Liver 1. Cleans system, detoxifies, stores energy, and monitors glucose. 2. Sends signals to hypothalamus, controls eating. 5.
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Notes - Modules 26, 29 - 30 - Motivation Emotion 1...

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