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Notes - Modules 33- 35 - PERSONALITY THEORY 1 Introduction...

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PERSONALITY THEORY 1. Introduction 1. Personality = " an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting." 2. Historical Perspectives of Personality 1. "Personality" comes from the Greek word persona and Latin word per sonare, meaning to speak through. 2. By the Renaissance the word meant the person behind the mask. 3. The earliest record of personality is with Greek's Hippocrates who distinguished people and types from each other using the dominance of the humors (4) in the body. (Blood, black bile, phlegm, and yellow bile) 4. Gall - Used phrenology to describe personality traits. He did this by feeling the shape of the skull looking for the bumps that were interpreted to represent personality characteristics! 5. Sheldon - Believed your body type and shape determined your personality. 6. Astrology - use of the heavenly bodies to predict personal traits. 2. Psychodynamic or Psychoanalytic Theory, Freud (1856-1939) 1. Driven by unconscious drives or instincts (divided into Life and Death Instincts) 1. Conscious - Those things we are aware of, constantly changing. 2. Preconscious - Things in long term memory that affect behavior but not yet in our consciousness. 3. Unconscious - Consists of those things (drives, needs, instincts) we are not aware of but that influence our behavior. 2. Freud divided the mind's structure into three components that affected personality and behavior 1. Id - the source of all mental energy. Born with at birth. Instinctual seeks immediate satisfaction, The Pleasure Principle means the Id seeks pleasure and avoids pain. 2. Ego - Attempts to find safe and acceptable ways to satisfy the Id's desires. Seems to begin to develop around age 6 months. By age 5 Freud believed we become socialized and have developed our personality. 3. Superego - The place in the mind which contains the moral standards of parents and society. This is might be thought of as your conscience. 3. Sources of energy 1. Libido - Is the life force that runs throughout the Id, Ego, and Superego. 2. Eros - Is the specific sex drive, one's way of expressing the libido, other outlandish behaviors are other attempts to release pent up energy. 4. Infantile Sexuality 1. Oral Stage : (0-18 mo.) 1st year of life, mouth is point of need satisfaction and pleasure seeking. 2. Anal Stage : (18 mo.- 3.5 years), toilet training dominates, point of expression of needs and soon learns pleasurable.
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3. Phallic Stage : 3 - 5 years, Stage where the Oedipal Complex develops. It is a lust for parent for the parent of opposite sex. The Electra Complex is the similar developmental challenge for girls 1. Freud believes these cause an increase in anxiety for the child and that in order to deal with the anxiety the child must identify with same sex parent to reduce this anxiety. This he believed is the key to gender identity development in children.
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