History 106 Notes - HistoryNotes The New...

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History Notes The New South (1877-1900) -Old South was destroyed by the Civil War including railroads, roads, plantations -Era was called The New South -New South Creed: move away from ideas of the Old South – Introduce industrialization Slavery, plantation economy, hierarchical social system -Signified that the south would welcome industrialization and economic expansion -Southerners look at agrarian idea and rejected it. Decided to industrialize. -Henry W. Grady : most visible, vocal of the proponents of the New South Creed -New industrialization included new railroads, textile mills, steel mills. -Capital invested in cotton producing states increased ten fold -South went back to producing cotton -Southern railroad expanded, double the amount in 1860; applied standard northern gauge and implemented in southern railroad -Expanded lumber industry in North Carolina to be used in construction, railroads, ship building, furniture -Coal and iron industry: iron ore in south was used in iron industry; center located in Birmingham, Alabama; “Pittsburg of the South” -Tobacco: two new varieties were grown called Bright Leaf & Burley tobacco Demand increased; cigarette production increased -James Buchanan Duke : used machine to roll cigarette; founded the American Tobacco Co. -Machine began doing work and cost of products fell quickly -This caused a loss of jobs because people were put out of work -Cotton/textile industry: because people were growing more cotton, cotton price decreases
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-World production of cotton was increasing; markets for Europe weren’t there because British were getting cotton from Egypt and India. -Markets guaranteed before Civil War were gone -By 1900, the price of cotton was low -For the long part, industry did not move to the South; short term successful -As a result of increased production of cotton, a system developed called a Crop Lien System Growing more cotton plunged farmers into more debt Farmers would plant cotton, but didn’t have the money up front for supplies These farmers went to “furnish merchant”; used a “tab” to receive supplies -Most farmers were Share Croppers & Tenant Farmers (Do not own the land) -Farmers were in a cycle of debt -Political discontent continued to grow; this discontent was aimed at African Americans -Led to increased segregation in the South -Republicans did not want the black vote anymore; turned to White Industrialists -After 1877, whites thought blacks were competing for their money -Began to pass Jim Crow laws in the south and expanded segregation to parks, schools, public transportation, etc.] -No enforcement of Amendment 14 or protection of black rights -Jim Crow Laws were then able to be passed through legislation (social segregation in public places) -Many southern legislatures passed the Mississippi Plan (targeted in economic & political aspects of African Americans) Called in 1890 from a convention in Mississippi Established voting requirements to disenfranchise blacks without violating the 15 th amendment
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