Native American Languages Part 2

Native American Languages Part 2 - Native American...

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Unformatted text preview: Native American Languages “Language, Ralegh seems to have recognized from the outset, was an essential instrument of empire” Language Families A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. Language Families Indo-European Afro-Asiatic Altaic (Turkish, Korean) Uralic (Finnish, Hungarian) circa 1400 c.e. • 300-600 languages in 62 language families spoken on the North American continent. 1997 C.E. • 175 Native American Languages in the USA • 20 were being learned by children; 55 were only spoken by very oldest people, usually 10 or less. Features of Language • Try to describe 3 sounds you’ve heard in languages other than English which English lacks. • How many sounds should a language have? • Does the number of sounds vary much from language to language? Features of Language • Average number of consonants in a language: 22 Features of Language • Southern Alaska and British Colombia • 140 speakers, all bilingual • Listen Features of Language Consonants of Tlingit: 47 Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal Central Lateral Plain Labial Plain Labial Plain Labial Nasal m n Plosive t tʰ tʼ k kʰ kʼ kʷ kʷʰ kʷʼ q qʰ qʼ qʷ qʷʰ qʷʼ ʔ ʔʷ Affricate ts tsʰ tsʼ tɬ tɬʰ tɬʼ tʃ tʃʰ tʃʼ Fricative s sʼ ɬ ɬʼ ʃ x xʼ xʷ xʷʼ χ χʼ χʷ χʷʼ h ʍ Approxi- mant l j ɰ w Features of Language • 28 of Tlingit’s 47 consonants are not found in Mandarin, Arabic or English Consonants of Cherokee: 11 Features of Language Bilabial Labio- Dental Dental Alveolar Retro- flex Post- Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Phary- ngeal Glottal Nasal m n Plosive t k ʔ Affricate ts h Fricative s Approxi- mant w j Lateral l Features of Language • A large number of languages must be examined to determine: • the full range of possible linguistic sounds • the number of distinct consonants a language can have Features of Language • Phonological • Morpho-syntactic Features of Language • Think of 2 pieces of information that are encoded in morphology in other languages. • How can gender be represented in a language? • How many suffixes can you put on a word in English, or another language you speak? • Morpho-syntactic Features of Language • Arabic: masculine & feminine • Gender in Arabic is grammatical (mostly arbitrary) • Masculine: book, nose, floor • Feminine: story, tree, ball, lake GENDER • Morpho-syntactic Features of Language • Northeastern Kansas, central Oklahoma,...
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course GERM 200 taught by Professor Kuhmar during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Albany.

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Native American Languages Part 2 - Native American...

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