Chapter_09_IM - CHAPTER NINE MOTIVATION Discussion 1....

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CHAPTER NINE MOTIVATION Discussion 1. Discuss why two people with similar abilities may have very different expectancies for performing at a high level. (LO1) Expectancy is a person’s perception about the extent to which effort (an input) will result in a certain level of performance. Two people with similar abilities may have very different expectancies for performing at a high level. One employee may think that a high level of effort will lead to high performance, while another may think that a high level of effort will not result in high performance. These employees may have similar abilities, but their managers may not provide the same motivation for the two employees. Managers who encourage their employees and express confidence in their ability to perform at a high level will likely have employees with higher expectancies than managers who do not encourage or support their employees. Also, the employees may receive different training, another factor in expectancy level. Managers who provide training to ensure that employees have the expertise needed for high performance will have employees with higher expectancies than managers who do not provide training for their employees. Jones and George, Essentials of Contemporary Management, Third Edition 9-1
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CHAPTER NINE MOTIVATION 2. Describe why some people have low instrumentalities even when their managers distribute outcomes based on performance. (LO2) Instrumentalities include perceptions that people have about the extent to which performance at a certain level will result in the attainment of outcomes. One important aspect of instrumentality is the linking of outcomes to performance. Employees will only be motivated to perform at a high level if they think high performance will lead to (is instrumental for attaining) rewards and benefits. Besides linking outcomes to performance, managers need to clearly communicate this linkage to subordinates. Managers who only apply the outcome aspect, but do not clearly communicate to employees how this works and the steps necessary to achieve desired outcomes, are missing the other half of the equation. Consequently, these managers may have employees with low instrumentalities, despite their efforts to base outcomes on performance. 3. Analyze how professors try to promote equity to motivate students. (LO3) Equity theory is a motivation theory that concentrates on fairness and people’s perception of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their inputs. Equity is achieved when a person perceives that his or her own outcome/input ratio is equal to a referent’s outcome/input ratio. Professors try to promote equity to motivate students by establishing standards of performance in their courses. A professor should specify the inputs that will be required for a student to achieve certain outcomes. For example, the amount of work, effort, class participation, and enthusiasm needed to get an “A” in a course should be equal for all students. If one student contributes significantly more inputs that another student, that student
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Chapter_09_IM - CHAPTER NINE MOTIVATION Discussion 1....

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