B&S13StudentVersion

B&S13StudentVersion - Chapter Thirteen Motivation...

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Chapter Thirteen Motivation
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Motivating for Performance (p. 454) Motivation forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts motivation is a psychological construct must be inferred from behavior highly motivated people, with adequate ability and understanding of the job, will be highly productive
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Law of effect - Thorndike behavior that is followed by positive consequences probably will be repeated stimulus–response–consequence associations Reinforcing Performance (p. 457) Positive reinforcement desirable consequences that, by being given or applied, increase the likelihood of the desired behavior being repeated in the future Negative reinforcement undesirable consequences that, by being removed or avoided, increase the likelihood of a desired behavior being repeated in the future desired behavior occurs cease aversive treatment avoid unpleasant consequence
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Punishment undesirable consequences that are applied to decrease the likelihood of an un desired behavior being repeated in the future undesired behavior occurs punitive (unpleasant) action Reinforcing Performance (cont.) withhold pleasant event effects of punishment are very complex Extinction withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence for undesired behavior , lessening the likelihood that the behavior will reoccur in the future
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Reinforcing Performance (cont.) Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod) set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behavior in organizations influences people’s behavior and improves performance by systematically managing work conditions and the consequences of people’s actions Organizational effects of behavior modification 17% increase in performance stronger average effect in manufacturing Ethical issues related to OB Mod questionable means for attaining laudable ends demeaning and manipulative effective means for attaining questionable ends variable-ratio reinforcement schedule
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Performance-Related Beliefs (p. 461) Expectancy theory people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome E->P expectancy - employees’ perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals P->O instrumentality - perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome valence - value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it (V) for motivation to be high, both expectancies and total valence of the outcomes must all be positive Effort = (E P) x (P O) x V
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Expectancy Theory – Figure 13.2
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B&S13StudentVersion - Chapter Thirteen Motivation...

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