POLS2402 Final Study Guide

POLS2402 Final Study Guide - Friedrich List Friedrich List...

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Friedrich List attacks English political economy because it’s unnatural, it destroys morality, it’s horrible, it denies the noble feelings ‘to which humanity for the greater part owes its progress’ - forces of production are both products of and inputs into progress: Wealth, civilization, power beget further wealth, civilization, power. .. - the less advanced nations must be raised ‘by artificial measures’ to that stage of cultivation to which the English nation has been artificially elevated (p.107) - political power → internal prosperity, security; not just material wealth (J.Bodin, after N.Machiavelli) - manufacturing better for mental development than agriculture; … the more industry & agriculture flourish the less can the human mind be kept in chains (p.168) - the nation derives its productive power from the mental and physical powers of the individuals; from their social, municipal and political conditions and institutions; from the natural resources placed at its disposal, or from the instruments it possesses as the material products of former mental and bodily exertions (… capital). - capital includes the material & mental and social means of production and aids to production (p.181). Friedrich List (1789-1846) The national system of political economy (1841) London: Longmans Green, 1919. Adam Smith treats his doctrine in a similarly extended sense, by making it his task to indicate the cosmopolitical idea of the absolute freedom of commerce of the whole world in spite of the gross mistakes made by the physiocrats against the very nature of things and against logic. Adam Smith concerned himself as little as Quesnay did with true political economy, that is that policy which each separate nation had to obey in order to make progress in its economical conditions. He entitles his work The nature and causes of the wealth of nations (that is of all nations of the whole human race). He speaks of the various systems of political economy in a separate part of his work solely for the purpose of demonstrating their non-efficiency, and of proving that ‘political’ or national political economy must be replaced by ‘cosmopolitical or world-wide economy’. Although here and there he speaks of wars, this only occurs incidentally. The idea of a perpetual state of peace forms the foundation of all his arguments. Moreover, according to the explicit remarks of his biographer, Dugald Stewart, his investigations from the commencement are based upon the principle that ‘most of the State regulations for the promotion of public prosperity are unnecessary, and a nation in order to be transformed from the lowest state of barbarism into a state of the highest possible prosperity needs nothing but bearable taxation, fair administration of justice, and peace’ (pp.97-98). David Ricardo
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POLS2402 Final Study Guide - Friedrich List Friedrich List...

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