Trade and interaction which wasn’t really capitalist
(Islamic, Turkish base – Istanbul) (C14-20th): trade with Egypt, Italy, India, Asia; also
Arabs → Africa; partly financed by Venetians
: products desired by Europeans (e.g. silk, porcelain) – advanced tech, urban development,
professional admin class, competent bureaucracy
Ming dynasty (C14-17th): shipping to Africa – very large ships, with cannons & cargo; sea-going fleet
: decentralized, not internally coherent C13-16th; often invaded (by Monguls, Turks, Iranians,
Afghans, Islamists), so coastal ports had autonomy, traded with Middle East, SE Asia.
: rival polities/ nations – strong wrt ROW (C13-15th) – new trading patterns, new forms of
money & finance, gradual ‘integration’ (of economic activity); commercial role of key cities increasing
e.g. Venice: linking Mediterranean, China, Africa, India, SE Asia – spices, silk, ivory; Italians would pay
in either gold/silver OR on-ship goods from other regions (timber, grain, cloth, salt, slaves).
→ commercial networks → bourse (Bruges) → Hansa merchants in Baltic (from C13th), pre-national
‘league’ [alliance of ports, esp sending products from north further west (wood, fur, grains, fish – for