art10_Myers_1998 - A Brief History of Human-Computer...

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44 interactions. ..march + april 1998 A Brief History of Human-Computer Interaction Technology Brad A. Myers
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45 interactions. ..march + april 1998 article Figure 1 shows the time span for some of the technologies discussed in this article. including when they were introduced. Of course, a deeper analysis would reveal signifi- cant interaction among the university, corpo- rate research, and commercial activity lines. It is important to appreciate that years of research are involved in creating and making these technologies ready for widespread use. The same will be true for the HCI technolo- gies currently being developed that will pro- vide the interfaces of tomorrow. Clearly it is impossible to list every system and source in a paper of this scope, but I have tried to represent the earliest and most influ- ential systems. Further information can be found in other surveys of HCI topics (see, for example, [1, 11, 36, 41]). Another useful resource is the video All The Widgets, which shows the historical progression of a number of user interface ideas [27]. The technologies discussed in this paper include fundamental interaction styles such as direct manipulation, the mouse pointing device, and windows; several important kinds of application areas, such as drawing, text editing, and spreadsheets; the technologies that will likely have the biggest impact on interfaces of the future, such as gesture recog- nition, multimedia, and three-dimensionality; and the technologies used to create interfaces using the other technologies, such as user interface management systems, toolkits, and interface builders. Basic Interactions Direct Manipulation of Graphical Objects The now ubiquitous direct manipulation inter- face, where visible objects on the screen are directly manipulated with a pointing device, was first demonstrated by Ivan Sutherland in Sketchpad [47], the thesis of his doctoral dis- sertation in 1963. Sketchpad supported the manipulation of objects using a light pen, including grabbing objects, moving them, changing size, and using constraints. It con- tained the seeds of myriad important interface ideas. The system was built at Lincoln Labs with support from the U.S. Air Force and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Research in human–computer interac- tion (HCI) has been spectacularly suc- cessful and has fundamentally changed computing. One example is the ubiqui- tous graphical interface used by Microsoft Windows 95, which is based on the Macintosh, which is based on work at Xerox PARC, which in turn is based on early research at the Stanford Research Laboratory (now SRI) and at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Another example is that virtually all soft- ware written today employs user interface toolkits and interface builders—concepts that were developed first at universities. Even the remarkable growth of the World Wide Web is a direct result of HCI research: applying hypertext technology to browsers allows one to traverse a link across the world with a click of the mouse. More than anything else,
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2012 for the course CGT 101 taught by Professor Mohler,j during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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art10_Myers_1998 - A Brief History of Human-Computer...

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