GOVT 2302 - Chapter 5 - Chapter5Outline...

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Chapter 5 Outline The Struggle for Civil Rights 1. With the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868, civil rights became part of the Constitution,  guaranteed to each citizen through “equal protection of the laws.” This equal protection clause launched a  century of political movements and legal efforts to press for racial equality. 2. From 1896 until the end of World War II, the Supreme Court held that racial discrimination did not violate the  Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause as long as the facilities were equal, thus establishing the  “separate but equal” rule that prevailed through the mid-twentieth century. 3. African Americans built organizations and devised strategies for asserting their constitutional rights. One  such strategy, championed by the NAACP, sought to win political rights through political pressure and  litigation. 4. After World War II, the Supreme Court began to undermine the separate but equal doctrine, eventually  declaring it unconstitutional in  Brown v. Board of Education. 5. The  Brown  decision marked the beginning of a difficult battle for equal protection in education, employment,  housing, voting, and other areas of social and economic activity. 6. The first phase of school desegregation was met with such massive resistance in the South that ten years  after  Brown,  fewer than 1 percent of black children in the South were attending schools with whites. 7. In 1971, the Supreme Court held that state-imposed desegregation could be brought about by busing  children across school districts. 8. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed job discrimination by all private and public  employersincluding governmental agenciesemploying more than fifteen workers. 9.
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GOVT 2302 - Chapter 5 - Chapter5Outline...

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