Chapter08 - CHAPTER 8 The Characteristics and Valuation of...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 8 The Characteristics and Valuation of Stock Multiple Choice: Conceptual Required return 1. Increase. Decrease. Fluctuate. Remain constant. Possibly increase, possibly decrease, or possibly remain unchanged. Required return Answer: d Diff: E If the expected rate of return on a stock exceeds the required rate, a. b. c. d. e. The stock is experiencing supernormal growth. The stock should be sold. The company is probably not trying to maximize price per share. The stock is a good buy. Dividends are not being declared. Constant growth model 3. Diff: E An increase in a firm's expected growth rate would normally cause the firm's required rate of return to a. b. c. d. e. 2. Answer: e Answer: a Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The constant growth model takes into consideration the capital gains earned on a stock. b. It is appropriate to use the constant growth model to estimate stock value even if the growth rate never becomes constant. c. Two firms with the same dividend and growth rate must also have the same stock price. d. Statements a and c are correct. e. All of the statements above are correct. Constant growth model 4. Answer: a Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct. a. The stock valuation model, P 0 = D1/(ks - g), can be used for firms which have negative growth rates. b. If a stock has a required rate of return k s = 12 percent, and its dividend grows at a constant rate of 5 percent, this implies that the stock’s dividend yield is 5 percent. c. The price of a stock is the present value of all expected future dividends, discounted at the dividend growth rate. d. Statements a and c are correct. e. All of the statements above are correct. Chapter 8 Page1 Constant growth model 5. Answer: c Diff: E A stock’s dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5 percent a year. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The expected return on the stock is 5 percent a year. b. The stock’s dividend yield is 5 percent. c. The stock’s price one year from now is expected to be 5 percent higher. d. Statements a and c are correct. e. All of the statements above are correct. Miscellaneous issues 6. Answer: c Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct? a. If a company has two classes of common stock, Class A and Class B, the stocks may pay different dividends, but the two classes must have the same voting rights. b. An IPO occurs whenever a company buys back its stock on the open market. c. The preemptive right is a provision in the corporate charter which gives common stockholders the right to purchase (on a pro rata basis) new issues of common stock. d. Statements a and b are correct. e. Statements a and c are correct. Preemptive right 7. Answer: b Diff: E The preemptive right is important to shareholders because it a. Allows management to sell additional shares below the current market price. b. Protects the current shareholders against dilution of ownership interests. c. Is included in every corporate charter. d. Will result in higher dividends per share. e. The preemptive right is not important to shareholders. Classified stock 8. Answer: e Diff: E Companies can issue different classes of common stock. Which of the following statements concerning stock classes is most correct? a. b. c. d. All common stocks fall into one of three classes: A, B, and C. Most firms have several classes of common stock outstanding. All common stock, regardless of class, must have voting rights. All common stock, regardless of class, must have the same dividend privileges. e. None of the statements above is necessarily true. Chapter 8 - Page 2 Efficient markets hypothesis 9. Answer: e Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct? a. If a market is strong-form efficient this implies that the returns on bonds and stocks should be identical. b. If a market is weak-form efficient this implies that all public information is rapidly incorporated into market prices. c. If your uncle earns a return higher than the overall stock market, this means the stock market is inefficient. d. Both answers a and b are correct. e. None of the above answers is correct. Market efficiency 10. Answer: c Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct? a. Semistrong-form market efficiency implies that all private and public information is rapidly incorporated into stock prices. b. Market efficiency implies that all stocks should have the same expected return. c. Weak-form market efficiency implies that recent trends in stock prices would be of no use in selecting stocks. d. All of the answers above are correct. e. None of the answers above is correct. Market efficiency 11. Answer: a Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct? a. Semistrong-form market efficiency means that stock prices reflect all public information. b. An individual who has information about past stock prices should be able to profit from this information in a weak-form efficient market. c. An individual who has inside information about a publicly traded company should be able to profit from this information in a strongform efficient market. d. Statements a and c are correct. e. All the statements above are correct. Chapter 8 Page3 Market efficiency 12. Answer: a Diff: E Most studies of stock market efficiency suggest that the stock market is highly efficient in the weak form and reasonably efficient in the semistrong form. Based on these findings which of the following statements are correct? a. Information you read in The Wall Street Journal today cannot be used to select stocks that will consistently beat the market. b. The stock price for a company has been increasing for the past 6 months. Based on this information it must be true that the stock price will also increase during the current month. c. Information disclosed in companies’ most recent annual reports can be used to consistently beat the market. d. Statements a and c are correct. e. All of the statements above are correct. Preferred stock concepts 13. Answer: e Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct? a. Preferred stockholders have priority over common stockholders. b. A big advantage of preferred stock is that preferred stock dividends are tax deductible for the issuing corporation. c. Most preferred stock is owned by corporations. d. Statements a and b are correct. e. Statements a and c are correct. Preferred stock concepts 14. Answer: e Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct? a. One of the advantages to the firm associated with financing using preferred stock rather than common stock is that control of the firm is not diluted. b. Preferred stock provides steadier and more reliable income to investors than common stock. c. One of the advantages to the firm of financing with preferred stock is that 70 percent of the dividends paid out are tax deductible. d. Statements a and c are correct. e. Statements a and b are correct. Common stock concepts 15. Answer: d Diff: E Which of the following statements is most correct? a. One of the advantages of financing with stock is that a greater proportion of stock in the capital structure can reduce the risk of a takeover bid. b. A firm with classified stock can pay different dividends to each class of shares. c. One of the advantages of financing with stock is that a firm’s debt ratio will decrease. d. Both statements b and c are correct. e. All of the statements above are correct. Chapter 8 - Page 4 Declining growth stock 16. Answer: e Diff: E A stock expects to pay a year-end dividend of $2.00 a share (i.e., D 1 = $2.00; assume that last year’s dividend has already been paid). The dividend is expected to fall 5 percent a year, forever (i.e., g = -5%). The company’s expected and required rate of return is 15 percent. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The company’s stock price is $10. b. The company’s expected dividend yield 5 years from now will be 20 percent. c. The company’s stock price 5 years from now is expected to be $7.74. d. Both answers b and c are correct. e. All of the above answers are correct. Market efficiency and stock returns 17. Answer: c Diff: M Which of the following statements is most correct? a. If a stock's beta increased but its growth rate remained the same, then the new equilibrium price of the stock will be higher (assuming dividends continue to grow at the constant growth rate). b. Market efficiency says that the actual realized returns on all stocks will be equal to the expected rates of return. c. An implication of the semistrong form of the efficient markets hypothesis is that you cannot consistently benefit from trading on information reported in The Wall Street Journal . d. Statements a and b are correct. e. All of the statements above are correct. Efficient markets hypothesis 18. Answer: e Diff: M Which of the following statements is most correct? a. If the stock market is weak-form efficient this means you cannot use private information to outperform the market. b. If the stock market is semistrong-form efficient, this means the expected return on stocks and bonds should be the same. c. If the stock market is semistrong-form efficient, this means that high beta stocks should have the same expected return as low beta stocks. d. Statements b and c are correct. e. None of the statements above is correct. Chapter 8 Page5 Semistrong-form efficiency 19. Answer: c Diff: M If the stock market is semistrong efficient, which of the following statements is most correct? a. All stocks should have the same expected returns; however, they may have different realized returns. b. In equilibrium, stocks and bonds should have the same expected returns. c. Investors can outperform the market if they have access to information which has not yet been publicly revealed. d. If the stock market has been performing strongly over the past several months, stock prices are more likely to decline than increase over the next several months. e. None of the statements above is correct. Semistrong-form efficiency 20. Assume that markets are semistrong-form following statements is most correct? Answer: e efficient. Which Diff: M of the a. All stocks should have the same expected return. b. All stocks should have the same realized return. c. Past stock prices can be successfully used to forecast future stock returns. d. Answers a and c are correct. e. None of the answers above is correct. Semistrong-form efficiency 21. Answer: d Diff: M Assume that markets are semistrong efficient, but not strong-from efficient. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. Each common stock has an expected return equal to that of the overall market. b. Bonds and stocks have the same expected return. c. Investors can expect to earn returns above those predicted by the SML if they have access to public information. d. Investors may be able to earn returns above those predicted by the SML if they have access to information which has not been publicly revealed. e. Answers b and c are correct. Chapter 8 - Page 6 Ownership and going public 22. Answer: c Diff: M Which of the following statements is false? a. When a corporation's shares are owned by a few individuals who are associated with or are the firm's management, we say that the firm is "closely held." b. A publicly owned corporation is simply a company whose shares are held by the investing public, which may include other corporations and institutions as well as individuals. c. Going public establishes a true market value for the firm and ensures that a liquid market will always exist for the firm's shares. d. When stock in a closely held corporation is offered to the public for the first time the transaction is called "going public" and the market for such stock is called the new issue market. e. It is possible for a firm to go public, and yet not raise any additional new capital. Dividend yield and g 23. Answer: b Diff: M Which of the following statements is most correct? a. Assume that the required rate of return on a given stock is 13 percent. If the stock’s dividend is growing at a constant rate of 5 percent, its expected dividend yield is 5 percent as well. b. The dividend yield on a stock is equal to the expected return less the expected capital gain. c. A stock’s dividend yield can never exceed the expected growth rate. d. All of the answers above are correct. e. Answers b and c are correct. Constant growth stock 24. Answer: d Diff: M The expected rate of return on the common stock of Northwest Corporation is 14 percent. The stock’s dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 8 percent a year. The stock currently sells for $50 a share. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. b. c. d. e. The The The The The stock’s dividend yield is 8 percent. stock’s dividend yield is 7 percent. current dividend per share is $4.00. stock price is expected to be $54 a share in one year. stock price is expected to be $57 a share in one year. Chapter 8 Page7 Multiple Choice: Problems Preferred stock value 25. $150 $100 $ 50 $ 25 $ 10 Preferred stock value Diff: E $125 $120 $175 $150 $200 Preferred stock yield Answer: c Diff: E A share of preferred stock pays a quarterly dividend of $2.50. If the price of this preferred stock is currently $50, what is the nominal annual rate of return? a. b. c. d. e. 12% 18% 20% 23% 28% Preferred stock yield 28. Answer: d Johnston Corporation is growing at a constant rate of 6 percent per year. It has both common stock and non-participating preferred stock outstanding. The cost of preferred stock (k ps) is 8 percent. The par value of the preferred stock is $120, and the stock has a stated dividend of 10 percent of par. What is the market value of the preferred stock? a. b. c. d. e. 27. Diff: E The Jones Company has decided to undertake a large project. Consequently, there is a need for additional funds. The financial manager plans to issue preferred stock with a perpetual annual dividend of $5 per share and a par value of $30. If the required return on this stock is currently 20 percent, what should be the stock's market value? a. b. c. d. e. 26. Answer: d Answer: a Diff: E A share of preferred stock pays a dividend of $0.50 each quarter. If you are willing to pay $20.00 for this preferred stock, what is your nominal (not effective) annual rate of return? a. 10% b. 8% c. 6% d. 12% e. 14% Chapter 8 - Page 8 Stock price 29. $164.19 $ 75.29 $107.53 $118.35 $131.74 Constant growth stock Diff: E $57.50 $62.25 $71.86 $64.00 $44.92 Constant growth stock Answer: e Diff: E Thames Inc.’s most recent dividend was $2.40 per share (i.e., D 0 = $2.40). The dividend is expected to grow at a rate of 6 percent per year. The risk-free rate is 5 percent and the return on the market is 9 percent. If the company’s beta is 1.3, what is the price of the stock today? a. b. c. d. e. $72.14 $57.14 $40.00 $68.06 $60.57 Constant growth stock 32. Answer: a A share of common stock has just paid a dividend of $2.00. If the expected long-run growth rate for this stock is 15 percent, and if investors require a 19 percent rate of return, what is the price of the stock? a. b. c. d. e. 31. Diff: E Assume that you plan to buy a share of XYZ stock today and to hold it for 2 years. Your expectations are that you will not receive a dividend at the end of Year 1, but you will receive a dividend of $9.25 at the end of Year 2. In addition, you expect to sell the stock for $150 at the end of Year 2. If your expected rate of return is 16 percent, how much should you be willing to pay for this stock today? a. b. c. d. e. 30. Answer: d Answer: c Diff: E Albright Motors is expected to pay a year-end dividend of $3.00 a share (D1 = $3.00). The stock currently sells for $30 a share. The required (and expected) rate of return on the stock is 16 percent. If the dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate, g, what is g? a. 13.00% b. 10.05% c. 6.00% d. 5.33% e. 7.00% Chapter 8 Page9 Nonconstant growth stock 33. Answer: d Diff: E The last dividend paid by Klein Company was $1.00. Klein's growth rate is expected to be a constant 5 percent for 2 years, after which dividends are expected to grow at a rate of 10 percent forever. Klein's required rate of return on equity (k s) is 12 percent. What is the current price of Klein's common stock? a. b. c. d. e. $21.00 $33.33 $42.25 $50.16 $58.75 Future stock price Answer: a Diff: E 34. Waters Corporation has a stock price of $20 a share. The stock’s yearend dividend is expected to be $2 a share (D 1 = $2.00). The stock’s required rate of return is 15 percent and the stock’s dividend is expected to grow at the same constant rate forever. What is the expected price of the stock seven years from now? a. b. c. d. e. $28 $53 $27 $23 $39 Beta coefficient 35. Answer: b Diff: E Cartwright Brothers’ stock is currently selling for $40 a share. The stock is expected to pay a $2 dividend at the end of the year. The stock’s dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 7 percent a year forever. The risk-free rate (k RF) is 6 percent and the market risk premium (kM – kRF) is also 6 percent. What is the stock’s beta? a. b. c. d. e. 1.06 1.00 2.00 0.83 1.08 New issues and dilution Answer: b Diff: E 36. NOPREM Inc. is a firm whose shareholders don't possess the preemptive right. The firm currently has 1,000 shares of stock outstanding; the price is $100 per share. The firm plans to issue an additional 1,000 shares at $90.00 per share. Since the shares will be offered to the public at large, what is the amount per share that old shareholders will lose if they are excluded from purchasing new shares? a. b. c. d. e. $90.00 $ 5.00 $10.00 $ 0 $ 2.50 After-tax returns Chapter 8 - Page 10 Answer: a Diff: M 37. The Stuart Corporation has excess cash to invest in one of two securities. The company's tax rate is 40 percent. The first alternative is a 10-year, 10 percent coupon bond (with semiannual interest payments) that has a current price of $1,000 and a yield of 10 percent. The second alternative is the preferred stock of Pickett Corp. which promises to pay a before-tax return of 9 percent. What is the after-tax nominal return of the better investment alternative? a. b. c. d. e. 7.92% 9.00% 7.33% 5.40% 7.00% Equilibrium stock price 38. Answer: a Diff: M Motor Homes Inc. (MHI) is presently in a stage of abnormally high growth because of a surge in the demand for motor homes. The company expects earnings and dividends to grow at a rate of 20 percent for the next 4 years, after which time there will be no growth (g = 0) in earnings and dividends. The company's last dividend was $1.50. MHI's beta is 1.6, the return on the market is currently 12.75 percent, and the risk-free rate is 4 percent. What should be the current price per share of common stock? a. b. c. d. e. $15.17 $17.28 $22.21 $19.10 $24.66 Chapter 8 Page11 Equilibrium stock price 39. Answer: b Diff: M You are given the following data: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) The risk-free rate is 5 percent. The required return on the market is 8 percent. The expected growth rate for the firm is 4 percent. The last dividend paid was $0.80 per share. Beta is 1.3. Now assume the following changes occur: (1) (2) (3) (4) The inflation premium drops by 1 percent. An increased degree of risk aversion causes the required return on the market to go to 10 percent after adjusting for the changed inflation premium. The expected growth rate increases to 6 percent. Beta rises to 1.5. What will be the change in price per share, assuming the stock was in equilibrium before the changes? a. b. c. d. e. +$12.11 -$ 4.87 +$ 6.28 -$16.97 +$ 2.78 Changing beta and the equilibrium stock price 40. Answer: d Diff: M Ceejay Corporation’s stock is currently selling at an equilibrium price of $30 per share. The firm has been experiencing a 6 percent annual growth rate. Last year’s earnings per share, E 0, were $4.00 and the dividend payout ratio is 40 percent. The risk-free rate is 8 percent, and the market risk premium is 5 percent. If market risk (beta) increases by 50 percent, and all other factors remain constant, what will be the new stock price? (Use 4 decimal places in your calculations.) a. b. c. d. e. $16.59 $18.25 $21.39 $22.69 $53.48 Chapter 8 - Page 12 Nonconstant growth stock 41. $ 7.36 $ 8.62 $ 9.89 $10.98 $11.53 Nonconstant growth stock Answer: d Diff: M Mack Industries just paid a dividend of $1.00 per share (i.e., D 0 = $1.00). Analysts expect the company's dividend to grow 20 percent this year (i.e., D1 = $1.20), and 15 percent next year. After two years the dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5 percent. The required rate of return on the company's stock is 12 percent. What should be the current price of the company's stock? a. b. c. d. e. $12.33 $16.65 $16.91 $18.67 $19.67 Nonconstant growth stock 43. Diff: M A stock is not expected to pay a dividend over the next four years. Five years from now, the company anticipates that it will establish a dividend of $1.00 per share (i.e., D 5 = $1.00). Once the dividend is established, the market expects that the dividend will grow at a constant rate of 5 percent per year forever. The risk-free rate is 5 percent, the company's beta is 1.2, and the market risk premium is 5 percent. The required rate of return on the company’s stock is expected to remain constant. What is the current stock price? a. b. c. d. e. 42. Answer: d Answer: a Diff: M R. E. Lee recently took his company public through an initial public offering. He is expanding the business quickly to take advantage of an otherwise unexploited market. Growth for his company is expected to be 40 percent for the first three years and then he expects it to slow down to a constant 15 percent. The most recent dividend (D 0) was $0.75. Based on the most recent returns, the beta for his company is approximately 1.5. The risk-free rate is 8 percent and the market risk premium is 6 percent. What is the current price of Lee's stock? a. b. c. d. e. $77.14 $75.17 $67.51 $73.88 $93.20 Chapter 8 Page13 Nonconstant growth stock 44. $ 69.31 $ 72.96 $ 79.38 $ 86.38 $100.00 Nonconstant growth stock Answer: e Diff: M Stewart Industries expects to pay a $3.00 per share dividend on its common stock at the end of the year (D 1 = $3.00). The dividend is expected to grow 25 percent a year until t = 3, after which time the dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5 percent a year (i.e., D3 = $4.6875 and D4 = $4.9219). The stock’s beta is 1.2, the risk-free rate of interest is 6 percent, and the rate of return on the market is 11 percent. What is the company’s current stock price? a. b. c. d. e. $29.89 $30.64 $37.29 $53.69 $59.05 Nonconstant growth stock 46. Diff: M A stock is expected to pay no dividends for the first three years, i.e., D1 = $0, D2 = $0, and D3 = $0. The dividend for Year 4 is expected to be $5.00 (i.e., D4 = $5.00), and it is anticipated that the dividend will grow at a constant rate of 8 percent a year thereafter. The risk-free rate is 4 percent, the market risk premium is 6 percent, and the stock's beta is 1.5. Assuming the stock is fairly priced, what is the current price of the stock? a. b. c. d. e. 45. Answer: a Answer: b Diff: M McPherson Enterprises is planning to pay a dividend of $2.25 per share at the end of the year (i.e., D 1 = $2.25). The company is planning to pay the same dividend each of the following 2 years and will then increase the dividend to $3.00 for the subsequent 2 years (i.e., D 4 and D5). After that time the dividends will grow at a constant rate of 5 percent per year. If the required return on the company’s common stock is 11 percent per year, what is the current stock price? a. b. c. d. e. $52.50 $40.41 $37.50 $50.00 $32.94 Chapter 8 - Page 14 Nonconstant growth stock 47. $49 $54 $64 $52 $89 Nonconstant growth stock Answer: e Diff: M Rogers Robotics currently (2001) does not pay a dividend. However, the company is expected to pay a $1.00 dividend two years from today (2003). The dividend is then expected to grow at a rate of 20 percent a year for the following three years. After the dividend is paid in 2006, it is expected to grow forever at a constant rate of 7 percent. Currently, the risk-free rate is 6 percent, market risk premium (k M – kRF) is 5 percent, and the stock’s beta is 1.4. What should be the price of the stock today? a. b. c. d. e. $22.91 $21.20 $30.82 $28.80 $20.16 Supernormal growth stock 49. Diff: M Hadlock Healthcare expects to pay a $3.00 dividend at the end of the year (D1 = $3.00). The stock’s dividend is expected to grow at a rate of 10 percent a year until three years from now (t = 3). After this time, the stock’s dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5 percent a year. The stock’s required rate of return is 11 percent. What is the price of the stock today? a. b. c. d. e. 48. Answer: b Answer: e Diff: M A share of stock has a dividend of D 0 = $5. The dividend is expected to grow at a 20 percent annual rate for the next 10 years, then at a 15 percent rate for 10 more years, and then at a long-run normal growth rate of 10 percent forever. If investors require a 10 percent return on this stock, what is its current price? a. b. c. d. e. $100.00 $ 82.35 $195.50 $212.62 The data given in the problem are internally inconsistent, i.e., the situation described is impossible in that no equilibrium price can be produced. Chapter 8 Page15 Supernormal growth stock 50. Answer: b Diff: M ABC Company has been growing at a 10 percent rate, and it just paid a dividend of D0 = $3.00. Due to a new product, ABC expects to achieve a dramatic increase in its short-run growth rate, to 20 percent annually for the next 2 years. After this time, growth is expected to return to the long-run constant rate of 10 percent. The company's beta is 2.0, the required return on an average stock is 11 percent, and the risk-free rate is 7 percent. What should the dividend yield (D 1/P0) be today? a. 3.93% b. 4.60% c. 10.00% d. 7.54% e. 2.33% Supernormal growth stock 51. Diff: M DAA's stock is selling for $15 per share. The firm's income, assets, and stock price have been growing at an annual 15 percent rate and are expected to continue to grow at this rate for 3 more years. No dividends have been declared as yet, but the firm intends to declare a dividend of D3 = $2.00 at the end of the last year of its supernormal growth. After that, dividends are expected to grow at the firm's normal growth rate of 6 percent. The firm's required rate of return is 18 percent. The stock is a. b. c. d. e. Undervalued by $3.03. Overvalued by $3.03. Correctly valued. Overvalued by $2.25. Undervalued by $2.25. Declining growth stock 52. Answer: b Answer: d Diff: M The Textbook Production Company has been hit hard due to increased competition. The company's analysts predict that earnings (and dividends) will decline at a rate of 5 percent annually forever. Assume that ks = 11 percent and D 0 = $2.00. What will be the price of the company's stock three years from now? a. b. c. d. e. $27.17 $ 6.23 $28.50 $10.18 $20.63 Chapter 8 - Page 16 Stock growth rate 53. Berg Inc. has just paid a dividend for $48 per share. The firm is expected return on the market is Treasury bonds is 11 percent. If rate of growth is expected? Answer: d Diff: M of $2.00. Its stock is now selling half as risky as the market. The 14 percent, and the yield on U.S. the market is in equilibrium, what a. 13% b. 10% c. 4% d. 8% e. -2% Stock growth rate 54. Answer: e Diff: M Grant Corporation's stock is selling for $40 in the market. The company's beta is 0.8, the market risk premium is 6 percent, and the risk-free rate is 9 percent. The previous dividend was $2 (i.e., D 0 = $2) and dividends are expected to grow at a constant rate. What is the growth rate for this stock? a. 5.52% b. 5.00% c. 13.80% d. 8.80% e. 8.38% Capital gains yield 55. Answer: c Diff: M Carlson Products, a constant growth company, has a current market (and equilibrium) stock price of $20.00. Carlson's next dividend, D 1, is forecasted to be $2.00, and Carlson is growing at an annual rate of 6 percent. Carlson has a beta coefficient of 1.2, and the required rate of return on the market is 15 percent. As Carlson's financial manager, you have access to insider information concerning a switch in product lines which would not change the growth rate, but would cut Carlson's beta coefficient in half. If you buy the stock at the current market price, what is your expected percentage capital gain? a. b. c. d. e. 23% 33% 43% 53% There would be a capital loss. Chapter 8 Page17 Capital gains yield 56. Answer: d Given the following information, calculate the expected capital gains yield for Chicago Bears Inc.: beta = 0.6; k M = 15%; kRF = 8%; D1 = $2.00; P0 = $25.00. Assume the stock is in equilibrium and exhibits constant growth. a. b. c. d. e. 3.8% 0% 8.0% 4.2% 2.5% Capital gains yield and dividend yield 57. Answer: e Diff: M Conner Corporation has a stock price of $32.35 per share. The last dividend was $3.42 (i.e., D 0 = $3.42). The long-run growth rate for the company is a constant 7 percent. What is the company’s capital gains yield and dividend yield? a. b. c. d. e. Capital Capital Capital Capital Capital gains gains gains gains gains yield yield yield yield yield Stock price and P/E ratios 58. Diff: M = 7.00%; Dividend yield = 10.57%. = 10.57%; Dividend yield = 7.00%. = 7.00%; Dividend yield = 4.31%. = 11.31%; Dividend yield = 7.00%. = 7.00%; Dividend yield = 11.31%. Answer: a Diff: M Over the past few years, Swanson Company has retained, on the average, 70 percent of its earnings in the business. The future retention rate is expected to remain at 70 percent of earnings, and long-run earnings growth is expected to be 10 percent. If the risk-free rate, k RF, is 8 percent, the expected return on the market, k M, is 12 percent, Swanson's beta is 2.0, and the most recent dividend, D 0, was $1.50, what is the most likely market price and P/E ratio (P 0/E1) for Swanson's stock today? a. b. c. d. e. $27.50; $33.00; $25.00; $22.50; $45.00; Chapter 8 - Page 18 5.0 × 6.0 × 5.0 × 4.5 × 4.5 × Stock price 59. Answer: d Diff: M You have been given the following projections for Cali Corporation for the coming year. Sales Sales price per unit Variable cost per unit Fixed costs Bonds outstanding kd on outstanding bonds Tax rate Shares of common stock outstanding Beta kRF kM Dividend payout ratio Growth rate = = = = = = = = = = = = = 10,000 units $10 $5 $10,000 $15,000 8% 40% 10,000 shares 1.4 5% 9% 60% 8% Calculate the current price per share for Cali Corporation. a. b. c. d. e. $35.22 $46.27 $48.55 $53.72 $59.76 Stock price 60. Answer: b Diff: M Newburn Entertainment’s stock is expected to pay a year-end dividend of $3.00 a share. (D 1 = $3.00, the dividend at time 0, D 0, has already been paid.) The stock’s dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5 percent a year. The risk-free rate, k RF, is 6 percent and the market risk premium, (k M – kRF), is 5 percent. The stock has a beta of 0.8. What is the stock’s expected price five years from now? a. b. c. d. e. $60.00 $76.58 $96.63 $72.11 $68.96 Chapter 8 Page19 Beta coefficient 61. Answer: c As financial manager of Material Supplies Inc., you have recently participated in an executive committee decision to enter into the plastics business. Much to your surprise, the price of the firm's common stock subsequently declined from $40 per share to $30 per share. While there have been several changes in financial markets during this period, you are anxious to determine how the market perceives the relevant risk of your firm. Assume that the market is in equilibrium. From the following data you find that the beta value associated with your firm has changed from an old beta of to a new beta of _. (1) The real risk-free rate is 2 percent, but the inflation premium has increased from 4 percent to 6 percent. The expected growth rate has been re-evaluated by security analysts, and a 10.5 percent rate is considered to be more realistic than the previous 5 percent rate. This change had nothing to do with the move into plastics; it would have occurred anyway. The risk aversion attitude of the market has shifted somewhat, and now the market risk premium is 3 percent instead of 2 percent. The next dividend, D 1, was expected to be $2 per share, assuming the "old" 5 percent growth rate. (2) (3) (4) a. b. c. d. e. 2.00; 1.50; 2.00; 1.67; 1.50; 1.50 3.00 3.17 2.00 1.67 Risk and stock value 62. Diff: M Answer: d Diff: M The probability distribution for k M for the coming year is as follows: Probability kM 0.05 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.05 7% 8 9 10 12 If kRF = 6.05% and Stock X has a beta of 2.0, an expected constant growth rate of 7 percent, and D 0 = $2, what market price gives the investor a return consistent with the stock's risk? a. b. c. d. e. $25.00 $37.50 $21.72 $42.38 $56.94 Chapter 8 - Page 20 Future stock price 63. $24.62 $29.99 $39.40 $41.83 $47.98 Future stock price Answer: b Diff: M Graham Enterprises anticipates that its dividend at the end of the year will be $2.00 a share (i.e., D 1 = $2.00). The dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 7 percent a year. The risk-free rate is 6 percent, the market risk premium is 5 percent, and the company's beta equals 1.2. What is the expected price of the stock five years from now? a. b. c. d. e. $52.43 $56.10 $63.49 $70.49 $72.54 Future stock price 65. Diff: M A stock currently sells for $28 a share. Its dividend is growing at a constant rate, and its dividend yield is 5 percent. The required rate of return on the company’s stock is expected to remain constant at 13 percent. What is the expected stock price, seven years from now? a. b. c. d. e. 64. Answer: e Answer: b Diff: M Kirkland Motors expects to pay a $2.00 a share dividend on its common stock at the end of the year (i.e., D 1 = $2.00). The stock currently sells for $20.00 a share. The required rate of return on the company’s stock is 12 percent (i.e., k s = 0.12). The dividend is expected to grow at some constant rate over time. What is the expected stock price five ˆ years from now, that is, what is P5 ? a. b. c. d. e. $21.65 $22.08 $25.64 $35.25 $36.78 Chapter 8 Page21 Future stock price 66. $10.63 $12.32 $11.87 $13.58 $11.21 New equity and equilibrium price Answer: c Diff: M Nahanni Treasures Corporation is planning a new common stock issue of five million shares to fund a new project. The increase in shares will bring to 25 million the number of shares outstanding. Nahanni's longterm growth rate is 6 percent, and its current required rate of return is 12.6 percent. The firm just paid a $1.00 dividend and the stock sells for $16.06 in the market. On the announcement of the new equity issue, the firm's stock price dropped. Nahanni estimates that the company's growth rate will increase to 6.5 percent with the new project, but since the project is riskier than average, the firm's cost of capital will increase to 13.5 percent. Using the DCF growth model, what is the change in the equilibrium stock price? a. b. c. d. e. -$1.77 -$1.06 -$0.85 -$0.66 -$0.08 Nonconstant growth stock 68. Diff: M McNally Motors has yet to pay a dividend on its common stock. However, the company expects to pay a $1.00 dividend starting two years from now (i.e., D2 = $1.00). Thereafter, the stock’s dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5 percent a year. The stock’s beta is 1.4, the risk-free rate is k RF = 0.06, and the expected market return is k M = 0.12. What is the stock’s expected price four years from now, i.e., ˆ what is P4 ? a. b. c. d. e. 67. Answer: b Answer: d Diff: E Your company paid a dividend of $2.00 last year. The growth rate is expected to be 4 percent for 1 year, 5 percent the next year, then 6 percent for the following year, and then the growth rate is expected to be a constant 7 percent thereafter. The required rate of return on equity (ks) is 10 percent. What is the current price of the common stock? a. b. c. d. e. $53.45 $60.98 $64.49 $67.47 $69.21 Chapter 8 - Page 22 CHAPTER 8 Answers and Solutions 1. Required return Answer: e Diff: E 2. Required return Answer: d Diff: E 3. Constant growth model Answer: a Diff: E Statement a is correct; the other statements are false. The constant growth model is not appropriate for stock valuation in the absence of a constant growth rate. If the required rate of return differs for the two firms due to risk differences, then the firms' stock prices would differ. 4. Constant growth model Answer: a Diff: E Statement a is correct; the other statements are false. If a stock’s required return is 12% and its capital gains yield is 5 percent, then its dividend yield is 12% - 5% = 7%. The expected future dividends should be discounted at the required rate of return. 5. Constant growth model Answer: c Diff: E Statement c is correct, the others are false. Statement a would only be true if the dividend yield were zero. Statement b is false; we've been given no information about the dividend yield. Statement c is true; the constant rate at which dividends are expected to grow is also the expected growth rate of the stock’s price. 6. Miscellaneous issues Answer: c Diff: E Statement c is correct; the others are false. Two classes of common stock can have different voting rights, as well as pay different dividends. An IPO occurs when a firm goes public for the first time. Statement c is the exact definition for a preemptive right. 7. Preemptive right Answer: b Diff: E 8. Classified stock Answer: e Diff: E 9. Efficient markets hypothesis Answer: e Diff: E Statements a through d are incorrect; therefore, statement e is correct. Statement a is incorrect. Strong-form efficiency states that current market prices reflect all pertinent information, whether publicly available or privately held. If it holds, even insiders would find it impossible to earn abnormal returns in the stock market. Statement b is incorrect; this describes semi-strong form efficiency. 10. Market efficiency Answer: c Diff: E Chapter 8 Page23 Statement c is correct; the other statements are false. Semistrong-form market efficiency implies that only public information, not private, is rapidly incorporated into stock prices. Markets can be efficient yet still price securities differently depending on their risks. 11. Market efficiency Answer: a Diff: E 12. Market efficiency Answer: a Diff: E Statement a is correct; the other statements are false. Historical information cannot be used to beat the market under weak-form efficiency. Public information cannot be used to beat the market under semistrong-form efficiency. 13. Preferred stock concepts Answer: e Diff: E 14. Preferred stock concepts Answer: e Diff: E Both statements a and b are correct; therefore, statement e is the correct choice. 70% of dividends received, not paid out, are tax deductible. 15. Common stock concepts Answer: d Diff: E Statements b and c are correct; therefore, statement d is the correct choice. A greater proportion of stock in the capital structure increases the likelihood of a takeover bid. 16. Declining growth stock Statement e is Statement a is correct; Div $1.547562/$7.74 17. Answer: e Diff: E the correct choice; all the statements are correct. correct; P 0 = $2/(0.15 + 0.05) = $10. Statement b is yield 5 = D6/P5 or ($2.00(0.95) 5)/($10.00(0.95) 5) = = 20%. Statement c is correct; $10(0.95) 5 = $7.74. Market efficiency and stock returns Answer: c Diff: M Statement c is correct; the other statements are false. If beta increased, but g remained the same, the new stock price would be lower. Market efficiency says nothing about the relationship between expected and realized rates of return. 18. Efficient markets hypothesis Answer: e Diff: M Statement e is correct; the other statements are false. If the stock market is weak-form efficient, you could use private information to outperform the market. Semistrong-form efficiency means that current market prices reflect all publicly available information. 19. Semistrong-form efficiency Answer: c Diff: M 20. Semistrong-form efficiency Answer: e Diff: M Statement e is the correct choice. Chapter 8 - Page 24 Semistrong-form efficiency implies that past stock prices cannot be used to forecast future returns. 21. Semistrong-form efficiency Answer: d Diff: M 22. Ownership and going public Answer: c Diff: M 23. Dividend yield and g Answer: b Diff: M Statement b is correct; the other statements are false. The stock's required return must equal the sum of its expected dividend yield and constant growth rate. A stock's dividend yield can exceed the expected growth rate. 24. Constant growth stock Statement d is correct; the yield + Capital gains. 14% yield = 6%. Dividend yield $3. Future stock price = $50 25. Answer: d Diff: M other statements are false. k s = Dividend = Dividend yield + 8%; therefore, Dividend = Dividend/Price; Dividend = 0.06 × $50 = × 1.08 = $54. Preferred stock value Answer: d Diff: E Answer: d Diff: E Vps = Dps/kps = $5/0.20 = $25. 26. Preferred stock value The dividend is calculated as 10% × $120 = $12. We know that the cost of preferred stock is equal to the dividend divided by the stock price or 8% = $12/Price. Solve this expression for Price = $150. (Note: Nonparticipating preferred stockholders are entitled to just the stated dividend rate. There is no growth in the dividend.) 27. Preferred stock yield Answer: c Diff: E Answer: a Diff: E Answer: d Diff: E Annual dividend = $2.50(4) = $10. kps = Dps/Vps = $10/$50 = 0.20 = 20%. 28. Preferred stock yield Yearly dividend = $0.50(4) = $2.00. kps = Dps/Vps = $2.00/$20.00 = 0.10 = 10%. 29. Stock price Chapter 8 Page25 0 ks = 16% | 1 | 0 ˆ P0 = ? 2 Years | ˆ D 2 = 9.25 ˆ P2 = 150.00 CF2 = 159.25 Numerical solution: $159.25 ˆ P0 = = $118.35. 2 (1.16) Financial calculator solution: ˆ Inputs: N = 2; I = 16; FV = 159.25. Output: PV = -$118.35. P0 = $118.35. 30. Constant growth stock P0 = 31. Answer: a Diff: E Answer: e Diff: E $2.00(1.15) = $57.50. 0.19 - 0.15 Constant growth stock The required rate of return on the stock is 5% + (9% - 5%)1.3 = 10.2%. D1 = $2.40 × 1.06 = $2.544. The price of the stock today is $2.544/(0.102 - 0.06) = $60.57. 32. Constant growth stock P0 $30 $4.8 - $30g $1.8 g 33. = = = = = Answer: c Answer: d | 1.00 Diff: E D1/(ks - g) $3/(0.16 – g) $3 $30g 6%. Nonconstant growth stock 0 Diff: E k = 12% g = 5% 1 | 1.05 2 g = 5% | 1.1025 3 g = 10% Years | 1.2128 1.2128 ˆ P2 = 0.12 - 0.10 = 60.6375 CFt 0 1.05 61.7400 Numerical solution: $1.05 $61.74 + = $50.16. P0 = 2 (1.12) (1.12) Financial calculator solution: Enter in CFLO register CF 0 = 0, CF1 = 1.05, and CF 2 = 61.74. Then enter I = 12, and press NPV to get NPV = P 0 = $50.16. 34. Future stock price Chapter 8 - Page 26 Answer: a Diff: E Step 1 Step 2 35. Find g: P0 = D1/(ks - g) $20 = $2/(0.15 - g) g = 5%. Find ˆ P7 = ˆ P7 = ˆ P7 = P at t = 7: P0(1 + g)7 $20(1.05)7 $28.14 ≈ $28. Beta coefficient Step 1 36. Diff: E Answer: b Diff: E Find ks: ks = D1/P0 + g ks = $2/$40 + 0.07 ks = 0.12. Step 2 Answer: b Use the CAPM to find beta: ks = kRF + (kM - kRF)b 0.12 = 0.06 + 0.06(b) b = 1. New issues and dilution Calculate current and new market value of firm after new stock issue 1,000 shares × $100 per share = $100,000 Plus 1,000 new shares @ $90 each + 90,000 New firm market value $190,000 Calculate new market share price $190,000/2,000 shares = $95.00 per share Dilution Old shareholders lose $100 - $95 = $5.00 per share. 37. After-tax returns Answer: a Diff: M The after-tax yield on the bond is calculated as YTM(1 - T). Thus, the after-tax yield is 10%(1 - 0.4) = 6%. The after-tax yield on the preferred stock (remember 70% of dividends are excluded from taxes) is 9%(1 - (0.3)(0.4)) = 7.92%. Thus, the preferred stock is the best alternative based on after-tax returns. 38. Equilibrium stock price Answer: a Diff: M Chapter 8 Page27 Time line: ks = 18% 0 g = 20% D0 = 1.50 1 g = 20% $ D1 = 1.80 2 g = 20% $ D2 = 2.16 3 g = 20% $ D3 = 2.592 4 gn = 0% $ D4 = 3.11 5 Years ˆ D5 = 3.11 $ P0 = ? 1.525 1.551 1.578 1.604 8.912 $ P0 = $15.17 ˆ P4 = Required rate of return: 3.11 = 17.278 0.18 − 0 k s = 4% + 1.6(12.75% - 4%) = 18%. Numerical solution: ˆ P0 = $1.80(PVIF 18%,1) + $2.16(PVIF 18%,2) + $2.592(PVIF 18%,3) + $3.11(PVIF 18%,4) + $17.278(PVIF 18%,4) = $1.80(0.8475) + $2.16(0.7182) + $2.592(0.6086) + $3.11(0.5158) + $17.278(0.5158) = $1.526 + $1.551 + $1.577 + $1.604 + $8.912 = $15.17. Financial calculator solution: Inputs: CF0 = 0; CF1 = 1.80; CF2 = 2.16; CF3 = 2.592; CF4 = 20.388; I = 18. ˆ Output: NPV = $15.17. P0 = $15.17. 39. Equilibrium stock price Answer: b Diff: M Answer: d Diff: M Numerical solution: Before: ks = 5% + (8% - 5%)1.3 = 8.9%. $0.80(1.04) ˆ P0 = = $16.98. 0.089 - 0.04 After: ks = 4% + (10% - 4%)1.5 = 13%. $0.80(1.06) ˆ P0 = = $12.11. 0.130 - 0.06 Hence, we have $12.11 - $16.98 = -$4.87. 40. Changing beta and the equilibrium stock price a. Solve for has a 40% b. Solve for c. Solve for (5%)b0; b0 d. Solve for e. Solve for f. Solve for 41. D1: D0 = 0.40 × E0 = 0.40 × $4.00 = $1.60, since the firm payout ratio. D 1 = D0(1 + g) = $1.60(1.06) = $1.696. the original k s: ks = D1/P0 + g = $1.696/$30 + 6% = 11.65%. the original beta using the CAPM formula: 11.65% = 8% + = 0.73. the new beta: b 1 = 1.5 × b0 = 1.5 × 0.73 = 1.095. the new k s using the CAPM: k s = 8% + (5%)1.095 = 13.475%. P 0 = D1 /(ks - g) = $1.696/(0.13475 - 0.06) = $22.69. Nonconstant growth stock Chapter 8 - Page 28 Answer: d Diff: M The required return on the stock is given by: ks = kRF + RPM(b) ks = 5% + (5%)1.2 = 11%. The stock price is given by: D5 P4 = ks − g $1.00 = 0.11 - 0.05 = $16.667. Thus, the current price is given by discounting the future price in Year 4 to the present at the required rate of return: $16.667 ˆ P0 = = $10.98. 4 (1.11) 42. Nonconstant growth stock Answer: d Diff: M First, find the stock price after two years: D1 = $1.20. D2 = $1.20 × 1.15 = $1.38. D3 = $1.38 × 1.05 = $1.449 ≈ $1.45. P2 = D3/(ks - g) = $1.449/(0.12 - 0.05) = $20.70. Discount this amount at 12% for two years to get the present value of P2, or $16.50. Second, calculate the present value of D 2, $1.10 (or $1.38 discounted two years at 12%), and the present value of D 1, $1.07 (or $1.20 discounted one year at 12%). The stock price today is equal to the sum of these three present values or $18.67. 43. Nonconstant growth stock Answer: a Diff: M Answer: a Diff: M ks = kRF + RPM(b) = 8% + 6%(1.5) = 17%. D1 D2 D3 D4 = = = = $0.75(1.4) = $1.05. $0.75(1.4) 2 = $1.47. $0.75(1.4) 3 = $2.058. $0.75(1.4) 3(1.15) = $2.3667. P3 = D4/ks - g = $2.3667/(0.17 - 0.15) = $118.335. $2.058 + $118.335 $1.05 $1.47 + + 2 3 (1.17 ) (1.17 ) 1.17 = $77.14. P0 = 44. Nonconstant growth stock Chapter 8 Page29 a. Find the expected return k s: ks = 4% + 6%(1.5) = 13%. (Using the CAPM.) b. Value the stock at t = 3: P3 = D4/(ks - g) = $5/(0.13 - 0.08) = $100. c. Find PV of P 3: $100 P0 = = $69.305. 3 (1.13) 45. Nonconstant growth stock Answer: e Diff: M To find ks, the return on the stock, we use the CAPM. ks = 6% + (11% - 6%) × 1.2 = 12%. The value of D1 = $3.00. D2 = $3.00 × D3 = $3.75 × D4 = $4.6875 the dividends for Years 1 - 4 are: 1.25 = $3.75. (This is the only one not given in the question.) 1.25 = $4.6875. × 1.05 = $4.9219. The value of the stock at t = 3 is: P3 = D4/(ks - g) = $4.9219/(0.12 - 0.05) = $70.3129. Now find the present value of the supernormal growth dividends and the value of the stock at t = 3. $3.00 $3.75 $4.6875 + $70.3129 + + P0 = 2 1.12 (1.12) (1.12 3 ) = $59.05. 46. Nonconstant growth stock Answer: b Diff: M We’re given D1, D2, and D3 = $2.25. D4 and D5 = $3.00. Calculate D 6 as $3.00 × 1.05 = $3.15. The stock price at t = 5 is P 5 = $3.15/(0.11 0.05) = $52.50. The stock price today represents the sum of the present values of D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and P5. $2.25 $2.25 $2.25 $3.00 $3.00 + $52.50 + + + + P0 = 2 3 4 5 1.11 (1.11) (1.11) (1.11) (1.11) = $40.41. 47. Nonconstant growth stock Chapter 8 - Page 30 Answer: b Diff: M Step 1 Step 2 Find ˆ P3 = ˆ P3 = ˆ P3 = Step 3 48. Calculate D 1 through D4: Since the dividend grows at 10 percent a year for 3 years, D 1 = $3.00, D2 = $3.30, and D3 = $3.63. The dividend starts to grow at 5 percent after t = 3, so D 4 = $3.8115. Find the current stock price: The current stock price (at t = 0) is the present value of the ˆ dividends D1, D2, D3, and the present value of P3 . Discount these values at 11 percent. $3.00 $3.30 $3.63 + $63.525 P0 = + + 2 3 1.11 (1.11) (1.11) = $54.48. the stock price at t = 3 when growth becomes constant: D4/(ks - g) $3.8115/(0.11 - 0.05) $63.525. Nonconstant growth stock 2001 | 2002 2003 | ks = 13% Answer: e 2004 2005 2006 | 2007 | | | | gs = 20% 0 1.00 g n = 7% 1.20 P0 = ? 1.44 1.728 $1.849 = 30.8167 0.13 − 0.07 32.5447 Step 1 Calculate the dividends. D2003 = $1.00. D2004 = $1.00(1.2) = $1.20. D2005 = $1.00(1.2) 2 = $1.44. D2006 = $1.00(1.2) 3 = $1.728. D2007 = $1.00(1.2) 3(1.07) = $1.849. Step 3 Calculate P 2006 (when growth becomes constant). D 2007 $1.849 = P2006 = = $30.8167. 0.13 − 0.07 ks − g Step 4 1.849 Determine k s. ks = kRF + (kM - kRF)b = 6% + 5%(1.4) = 13%. Step 2 49. Diff: M P0 = $0 $1.00 $1.20 $1.44 $1.728 + $30.8167 + + + + 2 3 4 5 1.13 (1.13) (1.13) (1.13) (1.13) = $20.16. Supernormal growth stock Answer: e Diff: M Chapter 8 Page31 The data in the problem are unrealistic and inconsistent with the requirements of the growth model; k less than g implies a negative stock price. If k equals g, the denominator is zero, and the numerical result is undefined. k must be greater than g for a reasonable application of the model. 50. Supernormal growth stock Time line: 0 ks = 15% Answer: b 1 2 ˆ D 1 = 3.60 ˆ D 2 = 4.32 g s = 20% D 0 = 3.00 3 Diff: M Years g n = 10% 3.13 3.27 71.86 ˆ P0 = $78.26 ˆ P2 = ˆ D 3 = 4.752 4.752 = 95.04 0.15 − 0.10 ks = 0.07 + (0.11 - 0.07)2.0 = 0.15 = 15%. ˆ D Dividend yield 1 = $3.60/$78.26 = 4.60%. P0 Financial calculator solution: Inputs: CF0 = 0; CF1 = 3.60; CF2 = 99.36; I = 15. Output: NPV = $78.26. Dividend yield = $3.60/$78.26 = 0.0460 = 4.60%. 51. Supernormal growth stock Chapter 8 - Page 32 Answer: b Diff: M Time line: 0 ks = 18% 1 2 3 ˆ D1 = 0 ˆ D2 = 0 gs = 15% D0 = 0 ˆ P3 1.217 = 4 gn = 6% ˆ D 3 = 2 . 00 2 . 12 0 . 18 − 0 . 06 ˆ D4 Years = 2 . 12 = 17 . 667 10.752 ˆ P0 = $ 11 . 97 ˆ P0 > P0 Stock is overvalued: $15.00 - $11.97 = $3.03. Numerical solution: Calculate expected price of stock, P 3, at time = 3 $2.12 D4 D3 (1 + g) ˆ = = = $17.67. P3 = k−g k−g 0.18 - 0.06 ˆ P0 = $2.00(PVIF 18%,3) + $17.67(PVIF 18%,3) = $2.00(0.6086) + $17.67(0.6086) = $11.97 versus P 0 = $15. Therefore, it is overvalued by $15.00 - $11.97 = $3.03. Financial calculator solution: ˆ Calculate current expected price of stock, P0 Inputs: CF0 = 0; CF1 = 0; Nj = 2; CF2 = 19.67; I = 18. ˆ Output: NPV = $11.97. P0 = $11.97. 52. Declining growth stock Time line: 0 ks = 11% 1 Answer: d 2 Diff: M 4 Years 3 gn = -5% D 0 = 2 . 00 ˆ D 1 = 1 . 90 ˆ D 2 = 1 . 805 ˆ D 3 = 1 . 715 ˆ D 4 = 1 . 629 $1.90 $1.90 = = $11.875. 0.11 - -0.05 0.16 $1.629 D4 = = = $10.18. 0.16 0.16 ˆ P0 = ˆ P3 53. Stock growth rate Answer: d Diff: M Chapter 8 Page33 Numerical solution: Required rate of return: k s = 11% + (14% - 11%)0.5 = 12.5%. Calculate growth rate using k s: $2(1 + g) D0 (1 + g) P0 = ; $48 = 0.125 - g ks - g $6 - $48g = $2 + $2g (Multiply both sides by (0.125 - g)) $50g = $4 g = 0.08 = 8%. Required return equals total yield (Dividend yield + Capital gains yield). Dividend yield = $2.16/$48.00 = 4.5%; Capital gains yield = g = 8%. 54. Stock growth rate Answer: e Diff: M The required rate of return on the stock is 9% + (6%)0.8 = 13.8%. Using the constant growth model, we can solve for the growth rate as $40 = [$2(1 + g)]/(13.8% - g) or g = 8.38%. 55. Capital gains yield Answer: c Step 1 Calculate k RF, the risk-free rate 16% = kRF + (15% - kRF)1.2 16% = kRF - 1.2kRF + 18% 0.2kRF = 2% kRF = 10%. Step 3 56. Calculate ks, the required rate of return $2 + 6% = 10% + 6% = 16%. ks = $20 Step 2 Diff: M Calculate the new stock price and capital gain New ks = 10% + (15% - 10%)0.6 = 13%. $2 ˆ = $28.57. PNew = 0.13 - 0.06 Therefore, the percentage capital gain is 43% $28.57 - $20.00 $8.57 = = 43%. $20.00 $20.00 Capital gains yield Answer: d Required rate of return, k s = 8% + (15% - 8%)0.6 = 12.2%. Chapter 8 - Page 34 Diff: M Calculate dividend yield and use to calculate capital gains yield: $2.00 D Dividend yield = 1 = = 0.08 = 8%. $25.00 P0 Capital gains yield = Total yield - Dividend yield = 12.2% - 8% = 4.2%. Alternative method: 42 D1 P0 = ; $25 = 0.122 - g ks - g $3.05 - $25g = $2 (Multiply both sides by (0.122 - g)) $25g = $1.05 g = 0.042 = 4.2%. Since the stock is growing at a constant rate, g = Capital gains yield. 57. Capital gains yield and dividend yield Answer: e Diff: M Calculate D1 as $3.42 × 1.07 = $3.66. The dividend yield is $3.66/$32.35 = 11.31%. The capital gains yield is equal to the long-run growth rate for this stock (since constant growth) or 7%. 58. Stock price and P/E ratios Step 1 59. Answer: d Diff: M Calculate the current market price $1.50(1.10) ˆ P0 = = $27.50. 0.16 − 0.10 Step 3 Diff: M Calculate the required rate of return ks = 8% + 2.0(12% - 8%) = 16%. Step 2 Answer: a Calculate the earnings and P/E ratio D1 = $1.50(1.10) = $1.65 = 0.30E 1. E1 = $1.65/0.30 = $5.50. ˆ P0 = $27.50 = 5.0×. $5.50 E1 Stock price Step 1 Set up an income statement to find Net income: Sales $100,000 $10 × 10,000 Chapter 8 Page35 Variable costs 50,000 $5 × 10,000 Fixed costs 10,000 (Given) EBIT $ 40,000 0.08 × $15,000 Interest 1,200 EBT $ 38,800 Taxes 15,520 0.40 × $38,800 NI $ 23,280 Then, calculate the total amount of dividends, Div = Net income × Payout = $23,280 × 0.6 = $13,968. Note: Dividends/Share = Total dividend/# of shares outstanding = $13,968/10,000 = $1.3968. Because these projections are for the coming year, dividend is D 1, or the dividend for the coming year. this Step 2 Use the CAPM equation to find the required return on the stock: kS = kRF + (kM - kRF)b = 0.05 + (0.09 - 0.05)1.4 = 0.106 = 10.6%. Step 3 Calculate stock price: P0 = D1/(kS - g) = $1.3968/(0.106 - 0.08) = $53.72. 60. Stock price 61. First, find ks = 6% $3.00/(0.10 – 0.05) for 5 years to find Beta coefficient Answer: b Diff: M + 5%(0.8) = 10%. Then, find P 0 = D1/(ks - g). P0 = = $60. Finally, compound this at the 5% growth rate ˆ ˆ P5 . P5 = $60(1.05)5 = $76.58. Answer: c Diff: M Numerical solution: Old required returns and beta $2 ks(old) = + 0.05 = 0.10. $40 0.10 = kRF + (RPM)bOld = 0.06 + (0.02)b Old; bOld = 2.00. New required return and beta $2.00 Note that D0 = = $1.905. $1.05 D1,New = $1.905(1.105) = $2.105. 2.105 ks,New = + 0.105 = 0.175. $30 0.175 = 0.08 + (0.03)b New; bNew = 3.17. 62. Risk and stock value Answer: d Diff: M Numerical solution: Required return on market and stock kM = 0.05(7%) + 0.30(8%) + 0.30(9%) + 0.30(10%) + 0.05(12%) = 9.05%. Chapter 8 - Page 36 ks = 6.05% + (9.05% - 6.05%)2.0 = 12.05%. Expected equilibrium stock price $2(1.07) ˆ P0 = = $42.38. 0.1205 − 0.07 63. Future stock price Answer: e Diff: M The growth rate is the required return minus the dividend yield. g = 0.13 - 0.05 = 0.08. What is D1? 0.05 = D1/P0 D1 = $1.40. What will be the Year 8 dividend? D8 = D1 × (1 + g)7 = $2.399. The Year 7 price is given by: P7 = D8/(ks - g) = $2.399/0.05 = $47.98. 64. Future stock price First, find D6 = $2.00(1.07)5 = $2.805. 0.05(1.2) = 0.12. Answer: b Diff: M Then, calculate k s = 0.06 + It follows that: P 5 = $2.805/(0.12 - 0.07) = $56.10. 65. Future stock price Answer: b Diff: M To find the growth rate: ks = D1/P0 + g Therefore ks - D1/P0 = g 0.12 - $2/$20 = 0.02. To find P5 we can use the following formula: P5 = D6/(ks - g). We therefore need D 6. D6 = D1(1 + g)5 = $2(1.02)5 = $2.2082. Therefore P5 = D6/(ks - g) = $2.2082/(0.12 - 0.02) = $22.0820. Note that you could also get this by taking $20(1.02) 5 = $22.082. 66. Future stock price Answer: b Step 1 Find the cost of equity: ks = 6% + (12% - 6%)1.4 = 14.4%. Step 2 Diff: M Find the value of the stock at the end of Year 1: Chapter 8 Page37 ˆ P 1 = D2/(ks - g) = $1.00/(0.144 - 0.05) = $10.638. Step 3 67. Find the value of the stock in Year 4: ˆ ˆ P 4 = P 1(1.05)3 = $10.638(1.05) 3 = $12.315 ≈ $12.32. New equity and equilibrium price Answer: c Diff: M Calculate new equilibrium price and determine change: $1.00(1.06) D0 (1.06) P0, Old = = = $16.06. 0.126 - 0.06 0.066 1.00(1 + g New) $1.00(1.065) $1.065 P0, New = = = = $15.21. ˆs, New - gNew 0.135 - 0.065 0.07 k Change in price = $15.21 - $16.06 = -$0.85. 68. Nonconstant growth stock Time line: 0 k = 10% 1 s | | g = 4% g = 5% 2.00 2.08 Answer: d 2 | g = 6% 2.1840 3 | Diff: E 4 Years | gn = 7% 2.3150 2.4771 2.3150 (1.07 ) ˆ P3 = = 82.5683 0.10 − 0.07 CFt 0 2.08 2.8140 84.8833 Enter in calculator CF0 = 0, CF1 = 2.08, CF2 = 2.1840, and CF3 84.8833. Then enter I = 10, and press NPV to get NPV = P 0 = $67.47. Chapter 8 - Page 38 = ...
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